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Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(fl Milan, c1737–63). Italian violin maker. His violins are roughly reminiscent of Giovanni Grancino’s model although without its symmetry. The craftsmanship rarely approaches any degree of refinement, though the tonal qualities invariably rise above these limitations, and authentic examples in good condition command respectable prices. The varnish on the better instruments is a reddish-brown, most of the others being a clear yellow-brown. Alberti took over Grancino’s shop, which is acknowledged on his printed labels: ‘Ferdinando Alberti in Contrada/Larga di Milano a Segno della/Corona F. l’Anno 17 –’ or ‘Ferdinando Alberti fece in Milano/nella Contrada del pesce al Segno/della Corona l’Anno 17–’. (R. Vannes: ...


Barbara Garvey Jackson and Ursula M. Rempel


See Krumpholtz family


Robert E. Eliason

(b 1736; d Philadelphia, Dec 29, 1804). American woodwind instrument maker of German birth. He was one of the earliest woodwind makers to take his skills to the New World. He arrived in Philadelphia about 1764 and continued in business as a turner and musical instrument maker until his death in ...


Nicholas Temperley

Reviser Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

(b ?Essex, c 1715; d Great Warley, Essex, Feb 7, 1792). English psalmodist. He was a singing teacher, parish clerk and (at least in 1790) organist at Great Warley, Essex, and compiled several publications designed for country parish churches. The most important was ...



Niall O’Loughlin

English and American firm of instrument makers, publishers and dealers. The two founders were the sons of Jacob Astor, a merchant of Mannheim. George [Georg] (Peter) Astor (b Waldorf [now Walldorf], nr Heidelberg, April 28, 1752; d London, Dec 1813), after an initial visit to London, decided to establish a business there with his brother John [Johann] Jacob Astor (...


Nicholas Temperley and Eva Zöllner

(bap. London, Jan 5, 1740; d London, June 11, 1796). English glee composer. He was a carpenter by trade, but later developed a second career as a composer and singer. In 1773 he was recommended by the renowned organist John Stanley to the Foundling Hospital as a singing master. Although appointed he was soon dismissed, as the General Court decided that the newly appointed organist, Thomas Grenville, needed no assistance in teaching the children. Two years later Atterbury became a musician-in-ordinary to George III. He sang in the Handel Commemoration of ...


David C. Wickens

(b ?Avening, 1737/55; bur. London, April 29, 1807). English organ builder. Rigby has suggested that the John Avery baptized at Avening, about 5 miles from Stroud, on 3 January 1738 was the organ builder; the record of his burial at Holy Sepulchre without Newgate, London, however, gives his age as 52, making his probable date of birth ...


E. Eugene Helm and Martin Elste

(b Berlin, 1748; d Berlin, May 26, 1809). German viol player and instrument maker. He was a viol player in the royal chapel from 1765, and in 1770, together with J.F.E. Benda, he established the Berlin Liebhaberkonzerte. With Benda’s death in 1785 Bachmann succeeded him as director of the concerts; in the same year he married the noted singer and pianist Charlotte Caroline Wilhelmine Stöwe. Throughout this period he also made instruments in the shop of his father, the violin maker and court violinist Anton Bachmann (...


Margaret Cranmer

(d London, Jan 1778). Dutch or German maker of harpsichords and pianos, active in England. He worked at 22 Great Jermyn Street, London, from 1763 to 1778. Writing to the Gentleman’s Magazine in 1812, James Shudi Broadwood attributed the invention of the English grand-piano action to the ‘Dutchman’ Backers in ...


Roger J.V. Cotte

(b Fockenhof, Kurland, Feb 14, 1722; d Paris, March 24, 1791). French dilettante, amateur violinist and composer, patron of the arts and instrument collector. A magnificent and very wealthy nobleman, he both amused and astounded his contemporaries. M. Audinot in his comic opera ...