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Being in tune.

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The tuning of an instrument. See also Accordatura and Scordatura.

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Bruce Carr

A term, meaning ‘not electric’, used in this special sense to designate a recording cut with a stylus activated directly (through a diaphragm) by sound waves rather than by electronic impulses, or, as in ‘acoustic guitar’, an instrument not amplified electronically. It was first applied to recordings in the early 1930s (electric recordings were first made in ...

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The maximum amount of disturbance from the equilibrium state in a vibration or wave. See Sound, §5 .

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Murray Campbell

(b Portland, OR, April 29, 1911; d Los Angeles, Oct 28, 1988). American acoustician. After studying at Reed College, Portland (BA 1932), he undertook postgraduate study at the University of California in Berkeley (MA 1936, PhD 1940). His early research work was in nuclear physics, working under the supervision of Ernest Lawrence in the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. In ...

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An acoustical phenomenon. See Beats .

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Beats  

Clive Greated

An acoustical phenomenon, useful in tuning instruments, resulting from the interference of two sound waves of slightly different frequencies. The number of beats per second equals the difference in frequency between the two notes: a pitch of 440 Hz will make four beats per second with one of 444 (or 436); three with one of 443 (or 437); two with 442 (or 438); one with 441 (or 439); and the beats will disappear if the two notes are in perfect unison. ...

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Murray Campbell

(b Chicago, Jan 2, 1925; d Cleveland, Aug 4, 1987). American acoustician. His parents being missionaries, he spent much of his childhood in Lahore. After returning to the USA to study at Washington University, St Louis (AB 1948, PhD 1952), Benade was appointed in ...

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Murray Campbell

(b Paris, Nov 16, 1866; d Toulouse, Nov 15, 1953). French physicist and acoustician. He studied physics at the Sorbonne (1883) and at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (1885–8). After teaching at the Collège de France and the Lycée at Agen, in ...

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Murray Campbell

(b London, August 26, 1933). English physicist and acoustician. He obtained a BSc in physics from Imperial College, London, later gaining the doctorate there with research into high-amplitude stress waves. After holding a research fellowship at the electronic music laboratory of the Canadian National Research Council in Ottawa, he worked for five years in the acoustics section of the UK National Physical Laboratory, where he carried out research on the psycho-acoustic perception of short duration and very low frequency sounds. In ...