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Article

Beḍug  

Margaret J. Kartomi

Large double-headed barrel drum in the Central Javanese Gamelan. It is about 74 cm long and 40 cm wide and is suspended in a decorative wooden frame. The heads are tacked to the shell and one head is beaten with a heavy mallet. It emphasizes dramatic effects in some gamelan works, especially in the theatre and plays the role of the ...

Article

Herbert Heyde

This article discusses trends in organizing the production of European instruments from the 15th century to the mid-19th.

1. Introduction.

2. Craft workshops and guilds.

3. Towards free craft.

4. Entrepreneurship and the factory system.

During the 15th century European instrument making entered a new phase with the rise of polyphonic instrumental music. Previously, folk and minstrel instruments had been made mostly by the players themselves. The intricacies of polyphonic music and the social context in which sophisticated instruments such as clavichords, trombones, lutes, and viols were played demanded craft refinement and specialization. The professional traditions of organ building and bell founding provided precedents upon which the new branches of trade could build. While the production of folk instruments continued as it had previously, the new, commercial approach to instrument making gradually evolved into two major forms, which were first observable in the processes of both bell founding and organ building. These forms were small craft-workshops and entrepreneurial businesses. These two forms sometimes intersected; small workshops would sometimes grow and develop into entrepreneurial businesses....

Article

Klawng  

David Morton

In Thailand, the generic name for drum. Several major types are used in modern Thai classical and folk music. The klawng khaek is a long double-headed cylindrical drum made of hardwood. The two goatskin or calfskin heads are laced together with leather thongs. The drum is played with the hands and used in pairs, the two drums in a pair differing in pitch. The ...

Article

Terry E. Miller

In Cambodia, the primary classical ensemble played at court ceremonies, some Buddhist festivals, to accompany the large shadow theatre, masked drama, and dance drama. Both the ensemble and its name are closely related to similar ensembles in Thailand (piphat) and Laos (sep nyai/piphat...

Article

Alastair Dick

Drone chordophone of north Indian classical music. This 19th-century instrument, whose name means literally ‘musical club’, lacks the neck and resonator of the South Asian tambūrā (of which it was designed as an easily transportable form), but has a swelling, hollow, club shape; it is about 37 cm long....