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Figural music. See Figural, figurate, figured .

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Nigun  

In the liturgical music of the Ashkenazi Jews, an early form of centonized chant, also known as nusa . Among the East European Ḥasidic Jews, the term refers to a type of vocal music, often sung to nonsense syllables and accompanied by dancing, of which one of the important forms is the ...

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Alastair Dick

Variable tension waisted drum of ancient India, important in the theatre orchestra. It is described in the Nāṭyaśāstra as 16 fingers (perhaps 32 cm) long with a narrow waist. The shell at the heads is 8 fingers wide externally, but as the shell here is 1½ fingers thick the internal diameter of the opening is 5 fingers; the diameter of the waist is 4 fingers. Elsewhere in the same text the drum is said to be bound all around with strings. Its playing technique is also described: the fingers of one hand or the armpit are used to tension and release the heads, producing low, high, and portamento (...

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Any plainchant recitation formula, e.g. tonus lectionum (lesson tone), toni psalmorum (psalm tones; see Psalm, §II ); also the reciting note itself, by which ‘tonus’ can be synonymous with the Latin ‘tenor’.

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A church Mode , e.g. primus tonus (mode 1, or the Dorian mode), tonus authenticus, plagalis (authentic, plagal mode).