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A reduction of an orchestral score to two or a few more staves with the parts for transposing instruments notated at sounding pitch and all entrances of the different instruments cued. Band scores are often printed in this form, which is also known as ‘condensed score’. ...

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Klaus Wachsmann, Margaret J. Kartomi, Erich M. von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs

‘Musical instrument’ is a self-explanatory term for an observer in his own society; it is less easy to apply on a worldwide scale because the notion of music itself in such a wide context escapes definition. Hornbostel (1933, p.129) advised that ‘for purposes of research everything must count as a musical instrument with which sound can be produced intentionally’, and wrote of sound-producing instruments, or, for short, sound instruments. The German word ‘Instrumentenkunde’ and its English equivalent ‘organology’ avoid the issue by taking the reference to sound or music for granted. Hood (...

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Laurence Libin, Arnold Myers, Barbara Lambert and Albert R. Rice

Musical instruments are collected for many reasons — for use in performance, as objects of veneration or visual art, to furnish ethnological and historical evidence, to illustrate technological developments and serve as models for new construction, for financial investment and sale, and merely to satisfy curiosity. Amateur and professional musicians, wealthy aristocrats, religious and municipal bodies, schools and museums are among those who amass instruments for one reason or another. Criteria distinguishing successful modern collections include not merely size, but also quality and accessibility of holdings, condition and documentation of individual objects, and integrity or coherence of the whole. This article outlines the history of instrument collecting with attention to the motives and conditions that influence collectors, and deals with assemblages of musical instruments gathered intentionally and more or less permanently. Instruments awaiting dispersal (e.g. in a dealer’s or maker’s shop) or accumulated apparently by chance are considered only in passing....

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Barbara Lambert and Albert R. Rice

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Laurence Libin and Arnold Myers

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A score in which each individual voice of a polyphonic composition is assigned a separate staff (see Score and Organ score).

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Laurence Libin and Arnold Myers

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Laurence Libin and Jessica L. Wood

Term introduced in the 20th century for instruments that had become obsolete but later were reintroduced as copies based on historical models. Some 19th-century antiquarians essayed earlier music on harpsichords, lutes, viols, recorders, and other types that had fallen out of production, for example in concerts organized by François-Joseph Fétis at the Paris Conservatoire from the mid-1830s, by Prince Albert at the court of Queen Victoria in ...

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Laurence Libin and Arnold Myers

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Laurence Libin and Arnold Myers

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See Instruments, collections of