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Article

John Barnes, Charles Beare and Laurence Libin

Faking musical instruments can involve such acts as creating an entirely new deceptive object, rebuilding an instrument with intent to deceive, conflating parts from different sources to form an instrument with a fictitious history, or forging an inscription on an instrument (and producing false documentation) in order to associate it with an advantageous name or period. A successful faker needs to know what customers want and the extent of their historical knowledge. Fakes can thus shed light on those who were deceived as well as on those responsible for deception. Partly to discourage misrepresentation, during the Middle Ages European trade guilds began to register makers’ marks and require their use on products; bells were perhaps the first instruments to bear such identification. Despite continuing efforts to suppress the practice, and improving methods of detection, faking and forgery, especially of valuable instruments sought by collectors as investments, continue to flourish....

Article

Mark Clague and Michael Mauskapf

An organizational form that does not distribute profits to owners or shareholders, but instead reinvests them in pursuit of a goal or mission. A nonprofit organization (NPO) must serve some kind of public benefit and be privately governed by a board of volunteers. Any type of organization (e.g., association, corporation, trust, shareholder entity, membership or board managed) that meets these criteria may apply to receive tax exemption under section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code. State entities may also excuse NPOs from sales and property taxes. Such tax breaks reduce the cost of operation in exchange for public good and effectively provide public support for service innovation. Although nonprofit organizations have existed in some form or another for over 300 years, the legal criteria used to define the modern nonprofit have evolved mostly since about ...

Article

An organization that represents the US recording industry; its members include record labels and distributors that collectively create and distribute the vast majority of recorded music sold in the United States. In addition, the RIAA works to protect intellectual property rights and the rights of artists through consumer, industry, and technical research, and by monitoring state and federal laws, regulations, and policies....

Article

Timothy M. Crain

Performing rights organization. It represents songwriters and publishers and their right to be compensated for having their music performed in public. With headquarters in Nashville and offices in New York, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Miami, and London, it is the smallest of the main Performing rights societies...

Article

Timothy M. Crain

Nonprofit performance rights organization. It collects license fees and distributes digital public performance royalties on behalf of sound recording copyright owners and featured artists for non-interactive digital transmissions, including digital cable and satellite television services, non-interactive webcasters, webcast transmissions of FCC-licensed radio stations, and satellite radio services. Membership in the organization is comprised of recording artists and sound recording copyright owners (i.e., labels), and is overseen by a Board of Directors comprised of members distributed equally between organizations representing the rights of musicians, such as the American Federation of Musicians, and the rights of recording labels (both major and independent), such as the Recording Industry Association of America....

Article

Aaron S. Allen and Laurence Libin

Term encompassing issues of respectful management of natural resources and corresponding ecologies so that they endure. Unsustainable depletion of resources through excessive use or misuse, habitat destruction, climate change, and associated cultural and ecological pressures increasingly concerns instrument makers, consumers, and preservationists, leading them to realign values and practices. Sustainability has become an existential problem for societies that rely on vanishing resources, and for plants and animals that interact in ecosystems, which in turn encompass humans. While cultural aspects of sustainability have been considered in many ethnographic and organological studies, ecological implications require further attention....

Article

Mark Clague and Dan Archdeacon

Growing out of the Detroit Artists Workshop (founded 1964), Trans-Love Energies (TLE, formally, Trans-Love Energies Unlimited, Inc.) was an anti-establishment commune founded in Detroit in February 1967. Its mission was to “produce, promote, manage, and otherwise represent musical and other artists, in recordings, concerts, tours, media, and related fields of culture and entertainment, including films, books, posters, light and sound environments—all on a cooperative, non-profit basis, for the purpose of educating and informing the general public in terms of contemporary art forms and cultural patterns.”...