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Theatre in Paris, founded in the late 18th century. In 1807 it became one of the four of official secondary theatres. It was little used for opera after 1815 and burnt down in 1827 See Paris, §4 .

Article

Thomas Bauman

Original-Singspiel in one act by Ignaz Umlauf to a libretto by Paul Weidmann; Vienna, Burgtheater, 17 February 1778.

Old Walcher (bass) opposes the suit of the young miner Fritz (tenor) for the hand of his ward Sophie (soprano), whom he secretly wishes to marry himself. After thwarting one rendezvous he ties Sophie to a tree. The gypsy Zelda (soprano) frees her and takes her place. When discovered, she reveals to Walcher that Sophie is his own daughter, stolen by gypsies. An attempt by Fritz to gain Walcher’s consent miscarries but when a mine shaft caves in on Walcher, Fritz rescues him and earns his blessing....

Article

Theatre in Vienna. Originally a tennis court,it was refurbished as a theatre in 1741 and used for opera for the next 70 years. It was one of the bases of the Hofoper until 1810. See Vienna, §2 .

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Theatre in Milan, inaugurated in 1779. In 1894 it was renamed the Teatro Lirico Internazionale, and later known as the Teatro Lirico.

Article

Julian Budden

A style of vocal writing characterized by abundant melismatic ornamentation and chiefly associated with Rossini and his followers during the 1820s, e.g. ‘Bel raggio lusinghier’ (Semiramide, Rossini, 1823). Examples can be found in the early works of Donizetti and Mercadante. From 1830, under the influence of Bellini, there was a steady move towards a more syllabic manner of verse-setting in which moments of ...

Article

Hugo Cole

Since medieval times children have participated in musical dramas, whether such involvement originated within a church, a school or, later, a theatrical context. This article primarily discusses the history and development of operas for children to perform, rather than works that are particularly suitable for children to watch, such as Humperdinck’s ...

Article

Claque  

John Rosselli

An organized body of operagoers who hire themselves out to provoke or prolong applause (or to boo, hiss, catcall or whistle at the rivals of the artist they support). It is distinct from (but may shade into) factions of admirers who applaud (or boo) out of conviction or friendship with management or artists. Faction thrives when opera rouses strong passions in a knowledgeable audience; a listless or ill-informed public provides suitable conditions for a claque. Hence the true claque flourished at the Paris Opéra at least from the 1830s, and at the New York Metropolitan for most of this century; two managers of these houses admitted that they had on occasion used it. The claque also thrived in modern Rome with its audience dominated by bureaucrats. The organizing principle was the payment by management or artists of a claque leader, both in money and in tickets which he gave out or sold at minimal prices to a semi-permanent group of underlings; these he marshalled in the theatre to provide degrees of applause in accordance with a tariff. On special occasions the underlings might be paid. The claque leader Auguste Levasseur (...

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Theatre in Florence , in the via del Cocomero, opened perhaps as early as 1654. In the 18th century it served as the national theatre of Tuscany; it was twice restored in the 19th, and in 1859 renamed after G. B. Niccolini. Opera ceased to be performed there in ...

Article

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

A type of 18th-century play or opéra comique almost always in one act and using characters from the commedia dell’arte tradition (such as Pierrot, Columbine and Cassandre). In keeping with this the humour is broad and very close to farce. As opéras comiques, comédies-parades could either re-use pre-existing music in vaudeville fashion (for example, ...

Article

John Rosselli

Though the term has at times been used of Travelling troupes , in English it is more often applied to groups of singers who put on opera in a single theatre.

In Italy, where public opera was for many years given only during a season of about two months, a company was as a rule the group of singers contracted for that season only, most of whom moved on after it had ended. At most, the Naples royal theatres (S Carlo and Fondo) between about ...