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Owen Wright

(b Maragh; d Herat, 1435). Timurid composer, performer and theorist. He first rose to prominence in the service of the Jalā’irid rulers of Iraq and Azerbaijan, al-Ḥusayn (1374–82) and Aḥmad (1382–1410). After the conquest of Baghdad by Tīmūr (...

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Theodore Karp

(b c1175; d c1230). Provençal troubadour. According to his vida, he was the son of a Toulouse cloth merchant (Peguilhan is a village in the Haute Garonne, near Saint Gaudens). He was apparently a wanderer who was received at many courts in southern France, Spain and northern Italy. Raimon V of Toulouse may have been his first patron, while others may have included Guilhem de Bergadan, Gaston VI of Béarn, Bernard IV of Comminges, Pedro II of Aragon, Alfonso VIII of Castile, Guillaume IV of Montferrat, Marquis Guilhem of Malaspina and Azzo VI and Beatrice d'Este. Aimeric's poetry, which includes chansons, sirventes, ...

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Owen Wright

(fl first half of the 11th century). Arab musician and writer. The son of an eminent musician, he became a prominent singer at the Cairo court of the Fatimid caliph al-Ẓāhir (1021–36), and was still active as a teacher in 1057...

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Maria V. Coldwell

(fl late 12th century). Troubadour. She exchanged a tenso with Giraut de Bornelh, S’ieus quier conseil, bel’ amig’ Alamanda (PC 242.69). The music survives in one manuscript ( F-Pn f.f. 22543, f.8r; ed. in H. van der Werf and G. Bond: The Extant Troubadour Melodies...

Article

Sarah Fuller

(fl 1146–1177). French cantor. He was probably from Estampes originally, but from about 1146 to 1177 he was cantor at Notre Dame, Paris. He left a substantial bequest of liturgical books to the cathedral. The sole, uncorroborated, trace of his compositional activity is a two-voice conductus, ...

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Theodore Karp

(d Arras, 1248). French trouvère. French royal accounts for 1239 mention Andreas Contredit, knight and minstrel, who had vowed to join the crusade led that year by Thibaut IV, Count of Champagne and Brie, King of Navarre. ‘Contredit’ is probably a sobriquet. It is possible that Andrieu was in the service of King Louis IX as a minstrel; ...

Article

Gordon A. Anderson and Thomas B. Payne

(b ?Cologne, c1130; d shortly after1165). Latin lyric poet. His real name is unknown. He was a German or French clerk of knightly birth whose patronage by Reinald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne and Archchancellor to Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa may have given rise to his pseudonym. He travelled throughout Germany and to Austria and Italy, where he was desperately ill in ...

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Theodore Karp

(fl c1170–1200). Provençal troubadour. He was apparently born at Mareuil-sur-Belle in the diocese of Périgord. According to his romanticized biography, he was by profession a scribe and notary, but abandoned his poorly paid duties in favour of a more enjoyable existence as troubadour; in the latter capacity he was first at the court of Roger II, Viscount of Béziers, and his wife Adelaide, and afterwards at the court of William VIII, Count of Montpellier. Of the 26 chansons attributed to him, six survive with music; 13 more works are ascribed to him in various sources, but are not likely to be his. In addition, he wrote both ...

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Theodore Karp

(fl 1190–1230). French trouvère. The dedication of two chansons (Amours, de cui j'esmuef and Pour travail) to Jehan de Nesle, castellan of Bruges, suggests that they were written before 1200, when Jehan joined the Fourth Crusade with Conon de Béthune. The interpolation of the first strophe of ...

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Maria V. Coldwell

( fl mid-12th century). Troubadour . According to her vida, Azalais was from the region of Montpellier, and the lover of Gui Guerrejat, brother of Guillaume VII of Montpellier. Only one of her poems, without music, is extant.

M. Bogin: The Women Troubadours (New York, 1976), 94–7, 166–7...

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Katherine Bergeron

(b Reims, mid-14th century; d 1397–8). French harpist and organist. He was musician to Philip the Bold of Burgundy and may be identifiable with Baude Cordier.

Article

Benoit  

Pamela F. Starr

(fl 1436–55). French singer and composer. He was probably from the archdiocese of Sens in Haute-Bourgogne. His works appear in 15th-century musical sources under the name Benoit, but an authoritative papal document identifies him as Benedictus Sirede. He is first documented in 1436–7...

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Theodore Karp

(b ?1150–55; d before Aug 1220). French trouvère. Ruins of the castle once occupied by the poet still stand at Berzé-le-Châtel, northwest of Mâcon, in Burgundy. The family, a powerful one, is traceable to the early 1100s; Hugues’ uncle was archdeacon of the abbey of St Vincent. According to Villehardouin, Hugues IV and his father were among those who announced their taking of the cross at Cîteaux on ...

Article

Ian D. Bent

(fl c1261). English singer. One of three Englishmen described by the late 13th-century theorist Anonymus 4 as ‘good singers’ of mensural polyphony, who sang with great refinement (‘valde deliciose’). The theorist referred to him as ‘Blakesmit, at the court of the late King Henry [III]’. He was clerk of the king's chapel in ...

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Theodore Karp

(d after March 1229). French trouvère. He was Seneschal of Poitou, and of a noble family with holdings in Blason and Mirabel; his uncle, Maurice, was Bishop of Poitiers. Thibaut was among the negotiators of the truce of 1214 between King Philip II Augustus of France and King John of England. Together with Hue de la Ferté, he was among the nobles at the coronation of Louis IX (St Louis). He took part in a crusade against the Moors in ...

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Roger Bowers

(fl c1370). English musician. The sole extant reference to his work occurs in the text of the motet Sub Arturo/Fons citharizancium/In omnem terram (see Alanus, Johannes, perhaps composed in 1372 or 1373. Its upper voice praises some 14 English musicians, recording a lively and productive group of composers, singers and instrumentalists then active in court circles, of whom Richard Blich was one: his ‘works please both holy people and rulers’. All the named musicians so far identified were active at some point in their careers in the English Chapel Royal between about ...

Article

Theodore Karp

(fl 1180–1200). French trouvère. Although the legend recounting the part he supposedly played in freeing King Richard the Lionheart from captivity is traceable to manuscripts of the 13th century, it is accurate only with respect to period. The trouvère's identity is a matter for speculation. Because the poet is never named Messire or Monseignor in the manuscripts, he would seem to be at most a younger son of lesser nobility, and perhaps a commoner. On the other hand, it has also been suggested that he is identifiable with the powerful Jehan II de Nesle. ...

Article

Theodore Karp

(b c1165; d between Oct 1, 1209 and Feb 2, 1210). French trouvère. Though a poet by profession, he may have been attached to the magistracy of Arras as sergeant. He apparently enjoyed the protection of the mayor, Sauwalon Huchedieu, and other wealthy people. He was an original, versatile and influential writer whose works include the ...

Article

Robert Falck and John Haines

(b Autafort [now Hautefort], ?1150; d Dalon, nr Hautefort, before 1215). Troubadour. His birthplace was in the Périgord region of the former province of Limousin; he was lord of the family castle at Autafort. In about 1195 he entered the Cistercian monastery at Dalon, Ste Trie, and remained there until his death. He is probably best known for his praise of military and political exploits; in the eighth circle of Dante’s ...

Article

Theodore Karp

(b c1210; d Arras, 1272). French trouvère. His grandfather, Jacques, was ‘sergent héréditaire’ of the abbey of St Vaast in Arras at the turn of the 13th century, one of eight officials supervising the water rights to the river Scarpe within the abbey's domain; his father (also named Jehan) held this position at least from ...