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Article

Owen Wright

(b Maragh; d Herat, 1435). Timurid composer, performer and theorist. He first rose to prominence in the service of the Jalā’irid rulers of Iraq and Azerbaijan, al-Ḥusayn (1374–82) and Aḥmad (1382–1410). After the conquest of Baghdad by Tīmūr (...

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Theodore Karp

(b c1175; d c1230). Provençal troubadour. According to his vida, he was the son of a Toulouse cloth merchant (Peguilhan is a village in the Haute Garonne, near Saint Gaudens). He was apparently a wanderer who was received at many courts in southern France, Spain and northern Italy. Raimon V of Toulouse may have been his first patron, while others may have included Guilhem de Bergadan, Gaston VI of Béarn, Bernard IV of Comminges, Pedro II of Aragon, Alfonso VIII of Castile, Guillaume IV of Montferrat, Marquis Guilhem of Malaspina and Azzo VI and Beatrice d'Este. Aimeric's poetry, which includes chansons, sirventes, ...

Article

Maria V. Coldwell

(fl late 12th century). Troubadour. She exchanged a tenso with Giraut de Bornelh, S’ieus quier conseil, bel’ amig’ Alamanda (PC 242.69). The music survives in one manuscript ( F-Pn f.f. 22543, f.8r; ed. in H. van der Werf and G. Bond: The Extant Troubadour Melodies...

Article

Gordon A. Anderson and Thomas B. Payne

(b ?Cologne, c1130; d shortly after1165). Latin lyric poet. His real name is unknown. He was a German or French clerk of knightly birth whose patronage by Reinald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne and Archchancellor to Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa may have given rise to his pseudonym. He travelled throughout Germany and to Austria and Italy, where he was desperately ill in ...

Article

Theodore Karp

(fl c1170–1200). Provençal troubadour. He was apparently born at Mareuil-sur-Belle in the diocese of Périgord. According to his romanticized biography, he was by profession a scribe and notary, but abandoned his poorly paid duties in favour of a more enjoyable existence as troubadour; in the latter capacity he was first at the court of Roger II, Viscount of Béziers, and his wife Adelaide, and afterwards at the court of William VIII, Count of Montpellier. Of the 26 chansons attributed to him, six survive with music; 13 more works are ascribed to him in various sources, but are not likely to be his. In addition, he wrote both ...

Article

Maria V. Coldwell

( fl mid-12th century). Troubadour . According to her vida, Azalais was from the region of Montpellier, and the lover of Gui Guerrejat, brother of Guillaume VII of Montpellier. Only one of her poems, without music, is extant.

M. Bogin: The Women Troubadours (New York, 1976), 94–7, 166–7...

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Katherine Bergeron

(b Reims, mid-14th century; d 1397–8). French harpist and organist. He was musician to Philip the Bold of Burgundy and may be identifiable with Baude Cordier.

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Robert Falck and John Haines

(b Autafort [now Hautefort], ?1150; d Dalon, nr Hautefort, before 1215). Troubadour. His birthplace was in the Périgord region of the former province of Limousin; he was lord of the family castle at Autafort. In about 1195 he entered the Cistercian monastery at Dalon, Ste Trie, and remained there until his death. He is probably best known for his praise of military and political exploits; in the eighth circle of Dante’s ...

Article

Stephen Haynes and Gwynn Spencer McPeek

(fl before 1190–after 1220). Troubadour. According to the brief medieval vida, he was a knight from the diocese of Puy-Ste-Marie-en-Velay (Haute-Loire). He can probably be identified with the Pontius de Capitolio who is documented from 1195 to 1220 in relation to his wife's property of Vertaizon, and who seems to have died by ...

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Maria V. Coldwell

( fl early 13th century). Troubadour . A noblewoman from the Auvergne, she was the wife of Turc de Mairona. Three of her poems are extant, but without music. See also Troubadours, trouvères, §I, 3 , I, 3.

M. Bogin: The Women Troubadours (New York, 1976), 118–29,175...

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Elizabeth Aubrey

(fl 1149–70). Troubadour. He was possibly the son of a burgher in Alvergne, and may have sought the patronage of the counts of Barcelona, Provence and Toulouse. His famous sirventes, Chantarai d’aquest trobadors (whose melody does not survive), satirizes several contemporaries, including Raimbaut d’Aurenga, Giraut de Bornelh and Bernart de Ventadorn. The song was once thought to have been composed in conjunction with the procession from Bordeaux to Tarazona in ...

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Theodore Karp

( fl 1214–40). Provençal troubadour . Two works are ascribed to this poet, probably identifiable with Pons I d’Ortaffa (in the vicinity of Perpignan), who appears in documents of 1214 and 1240. Si ay perdut mon saber (PC 379.2; of contested authorship) survives with music. In bar form, the melody is interesting for the manner in which it develops in the cauda the opening motif of the second phrase....

Article

Ian R. Parker

(b c1170; d before 1225). Troubadour. He, his two brothers Eble and Peire and his cousin Elias were seigneurs of the fortress of Ussel-sur-Sarzonne (Corrèze). According to his vida, Gui renounced his seigneurie in exchange for canonries at Brioude (Haute-Loire) and Montferrand (now Clermont-Ferrand). The ...

Article

(b Riberác, ?1150–60; d c1200). Troubadour. Famed as a master of the difficult style, or trobar ric, he brought the poetic style of the troubadours to new heights. His most notable admirers have included Dante, Petrarch, and, much later, Ezra Pound. In canto xxvi of the ...

Article

Robert Falck

(b ?Marseilles, c1150–60; d Toulouse, Dec 25, 1231). Troubadour. According to his vida he was born in Marseilles and was the son of a Genoese merchant named Amfos. His name first appears in a document in Marseilles dated 23 January 1178, where the reference is to ‘Fulco Anfos’; the possibility that he was born in Genoa, however, cannot be discredited. The ...

Article

Ian R. Parker

(b ?Palol, nr Elna [Elne]; fl 12th century). Troubadour. He is traditionally considered to be one of the first Catalan troubadours. He was born in the comté of Roussillon, and was in the service of Jaufre III, Count of Roussillon, who died in ...

Article

Ian R. Parker

(fl c1194–1221). Troubadour. According to his vida, he was born in the neighbourhood of Gap (Hautes-Alpes), the son of a jongleur called Asar. He was renowned as a singer, and for the originality of his melodies but not for his texts. He remained for many years in Orange but worked also in Italy from ...

Article

Robert Falck and John Haines

(b Ventadorn, c1130–40; d Dordogne, c1190–1200). Troubadour. He is widely regarded today as perhaps the finest of the troubadour poets and probably the most important musically. His vida, which contains many purely conventional elements, states that he was born in the castle of Ventadorn in the province of Limousin, and was in the service of the Viscount of Ventadorn. In ...

Article

Elizabeth Aubrey

(fl late 12th/early 13th century). Troubadour (or trobairitz, to use a later term for a woman troubadour). No medieval source gives her a first name. Her vida says she was the wife of Guillem de Poitiers, but there is no known Guillem de Poitiers who was married to a Countess of Dia, a town on the Drôme in the marquisate of Provence. The most plausible theory is that she was a daughter of Count Isoard II of Dia, called ‘Beatrix comitissa’ in a document of ...

Article

Manuel Pedro Ferreira

( b 1261; ruled 1279–1325; d 1325). Portuguese ruler and troubadour . He was the grandson of Alfonso X of Castile and León, by whom he was knighted. He married Isabel of Aragon. His court was the last refuge of the Galician-Portuguese lyric tradition. Dom Dinis's extant literary output includes 137 compositions: 73 ...