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Article

Michel Huglo

(b ?Scotland, late 10th century; d Cologne, Nov 18, 1052). ?Scottish Benedictine abbot and music theorist. The date of his death (the 14th day before the calends of December 1052) is known from Hartzheim, who had access to local documents now lost. He was Abbot of St Martin in Cologne (Cologne like Laon and Liège attracted many Irish and Scots from the 9th century onwards) and at the same time (...

Article

(b Le Pallet, nr Nantes, 1079; d Saint-Marcel, nr Chalon-sur-Saône, April 21, 1142). French philosopher, poet and musician of Breton origin. After studying philosophy in Paris, he taught dialectic at the cathedral school. His love affair with Heloise, the young niece of Canon Fulbert, brought him fame as a musician. However, after they had secretly married in ...

Article

Geoffrey Chew

(b ?Libice, Bohemia, c956; d nr Danzig [now Gdańsk], April 23, 997). Czech bishop, missionary, martyr, and saint. He belonged to the powerful Slavník family and was baptized Vojtěch, taking the name Adalbert at his confirmation. Educated at Magdeburg, he was consecrated Bishop of Prague in 983. Owing to opposition he twice resigned the see and travelled to Rome, returning each time to Prague. In Italy he became a Benedictine (989) and visited Monte Cassino; he founded the first Benedictine houses in Bohemia (Břevnov, 993) and Poland (Międzyrzecz, ...

Article

Margot E. Fassler

(d St Victor, Paris, 1146). French writer of sequences. Previously thought to have died late in the 12th century but now known to have been active much earlier in the century, he was a seminal figure in the development of the sequence repertory. The first document with a probable reference to Adam is a charter of ...

Article

Andrew Hughes and Randall Rosenfeld

(b ? Hexham, c1110; d York, 1167). English saint, theologian and historian. He was brought up in the household of David I of Scotland, and later became an officer (dapifer) there. He was professed a monk of the Cistercian house at Rievaulx in Yorkshire (...

Article

Afat  

Tom R. Ward and David Fallows

(fl ?c1430). Composer, possibly Italian. He may have been active in Brescia, if that is indeed the origin of the manuscript I-Bu 2216, which contains his only known work. This is a Sanctus (ed. in MLMI, 3rd ser., Mensurabilia, iii, vol.ii, 1970...

Article

James W. McKinnon

(b Spain, 769; d Lyons, 840). Frankish ecclesiastic. He came as a youth to Gaul, taking up residence in the monastery of St Polycarp near Narbonne. He was ordained in 804 and named bishop of Lyons in 816, where he remained for the rest of his life, except for a period of exile in Italy during the years 835–8 because he had sided with the sons of the emperor Louis the Pious against their father; his temporary replacement as administrator of Lyons was his rival ...

Article

Owen Wright

(fl first half of the 11th century). Arab musician and writer. The son of an eminent musician, he became a prominent singer at the Cairo court of the Fatimid caliph al-Ẓāhir (1021–36), and was still active as a teacher in 1057...

Article

Sarah Fuller

(fl 1146–1177). French cantor. He was probably from Estampes originally, but from about 1146 to 1177 he was cantor at Notre Dame, Paris. He left a substantial bequest of liturgical books to the cathedral. The sole, uncorroborated, trace of his compositional activity is a two-voice conductus, ...

Article

Edward Booth and Sean Gallagher

(b Roccasecca, 1226; d Fossanova, March 7, 1274). Italian Dominican priest and theologian. He was described as ‘Doctor Angelicus’. He led a life of intense study, lecturing and writing at Cologne, Paris and Naples. His works form the most profound, comprehensive and ordered scholastic synthesis of the scriptures, patristic teaching and philosophy; his philosophical work consists primarily of a judicious interpretation of Aristotle and his Greek and Arab commentators, integrated with an often neglected element of Platonist thought (mostly derived through St Augustine and neo-Platonist intermediaries). He was canonized in ...

Article

Barlaam  

Andrew Hughes

(d 1350). Monk and Bishop of Gerace. Barlaam was his religious name. He was educated in Byzantine monasteries of southern Italy, and visited Constantinople in the 1330s. In 1339 the eastern emperor made him envoy to Pope Benedict XII at Avignon. He taught Greek to Petrarch, and under Petrarch’s influence became a convert to Latin Catholicism in ...

Article

Andrew Hughes

(d 1286). ?French poet and priest. He was a canon and priest of the collegiate church of St Pierre in Lille, near Arras. About 1280, he wrote a metrical and rhymed paraphrase of the famous poem, Anticlaudianus, by the 12th-century theologian, philosopher and poet ...

Article

Mary Berry

(b Fontaines-lès-Dijon, 1090; d Clairvaux, 1153). French theologian, reformer and mystic. He was educated at Châtillon by the canons of St Vorles. In 1112 or 1113 he entered Cîteaux, and in 1115, in obedience to his abbot, St Stephen Harding, he left it to found Clairvaux, which was to become one of the most famous houses of the Cistercian order. Bernard was its first abbot, ruling over it until his death. Many of his written works were designed for delivery in the chapter house before his own monks. His influence, however, extended far beyond the confines of Clairvaux. He travelled throughout Europe, from Speyer to Palermo and from Madrid to Bordeaux, crossing and recrossing the Alps and the Pyrenees. He made active contributions to synods and councils, notably at Troyes (...

Article

Gordon A. Anderson and Anna Maria Busse Berger

(b Noordwijk, early 14th century; d Rijnsburg, 1367). Dutch priest and music theorist. He attended university at Oxford and Paris, and after completion of studies in law became a priest. From 1358 to his death he was parish priest in Rijnsburg. He wrote two treatises. ...

Article

Andrew Hughes and Andrea Budgey

(b Manorbier, c1146; d ?Lincoln, c1223). Welsh-Norman ecclesiastic and author. Educated in arts and canon law at Paris, he was archdeacon of Brecon from about 1175 to 1203; from 1184 to 1194 he was also in royal service. After visits to Ireland in ...

Article

Sarah Fuller

(fl 1132–57). Cistercian monk and abbot of the monastery at Cherlieu from 1132–57. In some manuscripts known in the 18th and 19th centuries, the preface to the Cistercian Gradual, Cantum quem Cisterciensis ordinis, bore an attribution to Guido of Cherlieu. Since these manuscripts have now disappeared, it is impossible to evaluate their testimony. There is a distinct possibility that Guido of Cherlieu is an alternative name for ...

Article

Margaret Bent and Roger Bowers

(b c1385, d 1442). English church musician and composer. Nine compositions in the Old Hall Manuscript are attributed to ‘Cooke’ and one piece preserved anonymously there may also be assigned to him; a further, unclear attribution may read ‘J. Cooke’. The name Cooke was common, and it is possible that this music includes works by more than one composer so named. Most if not all, however, is probably attributable to the John Cooke who, as almost certainly a former chorister of the Chapel Royal, was sent from a very junior clerkship there to study at King’s Hall, Cambridge, in ...

Article

Ian R. Parker

(fl 1230–68). Trouvère. His name implies that he was born in the village of Givenchy (Pas de Calais). His activity centred around Arras where he seems to have come in contact with Simon d’Authie, Pierre de Corbie, Guillaume Le Vinier and Jehan Bretel. His name appears first in two charters, dated May and ...

Article

Ursula Günther and Yolanda Plumley

(d 1348). Priest and composer. This name appears together with ‘Magister Heinricus’ in Coussemaker’s copy of F-Sm 222 (facs. in TM, ii, 1977) above a 14th-century motet dedicated to St Ida of Boulogne (1040–1113), the mother of three crusaders and an ancestor of Gui de Boulogne (...

Article

(d c1100). Hymnographer of the Georgian Church. See Georgia, §II, 3.