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Michel Huglo

(b ?Scotland, late 10th century; d Cologne, Nov 18, 1052). ?Scottish Benedictine abbot and music theorist. The date of his death (the 14th day before the calends of December 1052) is known from Hartzheim, who had access to local documents now lost. He was Abbot of St Martin in Cologne (Cologne like Laon and Liège attracted many Irish and Scots from the 9th century onwards) and at the same time (...

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Owen Wright

(b Maragh; d Herat, 1435). Timurid composer, performer and theorist. He first rose to prominence in the service of the Jalā’irid rulers of Iraq and Azerbaijan, al-Ḥusayn (1374–82) and Aḥmad (1382–1410). After the conquest of Baghdad by Tīmūr (...

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(b Le Pallet, nr Nantes, 1079; d Saint-Marcel, nr Chalon-sur-Saône, April 21, 1142). French philosopher, poet and musician of Breton origin. After studying philosophy in Paris, he taught dialectic at the cathedral school. His love affair with Heloise, the young niece of Canon Fulbert, brought him fame as a musician. However, after they had secretly married in ...

Article

Jonathan Katz

(fl c1000). Indian philosopher, mystic and scholar. He was born to a Brahman family probably of Srinagar, Kashmir, and continued in their Śaiva Hindu religious tradition, being trained in grammar and philosophy by his father; but he also studied more widely with Hindu, Buddhist and Jain teachers. He lived a life of renunciation as a scholar and religious devotee and never married. His hugely prolific scholarly and literary output in Sanskrit included approximately 50 works which may be crudely grouped into the areas of religious exegesis, philosophical analysis and commentary, and aesthetics. For the historian of music his most important contribution is the monumental commentary ...

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Owen Wright

(b Denia, Spain, 1067; d Mahdia, Tunisia, 1134). Arab scientist and philosopher. His works, mainly on scientific topics, are said to have included a now lost Risāla fī al-mūsīqī (‘Treatise on music’). It is presumably from this that a surviving anonymous Hebrew translation was made which suggests that it originally formed part of the mathematical section (quadrivium) of an encyclopedia. It deals with the standard topics of definitions, intervals, tetrachord species, instruments and rhythm, and is largely derived from ...

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Charles Burnett

(bc1080; dc1150). Music theorist active in England. He studied in Tours, probably taught in Laon, travelled in Sicily, southern Italy and the Crusader states, but apparently spent much of his life in the south-west of England. He translated Arabic scientific texts into Latin and wrote original works of considerable literary merit, perhaps in his role as a tutor in an episcopal or royal court: one such text was addressed to the future King Henry II. Adelard dealt with music as an integral part of the Quadrivium. In the ...

Article

Cecil Adkins

(d 1024). North Netherlandish ecclesiastic and treatise writer. He was Bishop of Utrecht under Emperor Henry II. The proximity of two short treatises on the division of the monochord to Adelboldus’s treatise on geometry, De crassitudine sphaerae, in a 12th-century manuscript from Tegernsee (...

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Andrew Wathey

(fl c1300–30; d ? c1330). French theorist. He may be identifiable with Amis d'Orléans, a notary in the French royal chancery, 1301–29, who was a contemporary of Gervès du Bus (see Fauvel, Roman de); Amis was appointed king's secretary in ...

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Andrew Hughes

(b c1250; d 1331). Austrian theorist. A Benedictine monk of Admont, he studied at Prague (1271–4) and then at Padua (at the university and the Dominican school of theology). After 1285 he probably became Abbot of St Peter’s, Salzburg, and from ...

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Andrew Hughes and Randall Rosenfeld

(b ? Hexham, c1110; d York, 1167). English saint, theologian and historian. He was brought up in the household of David I of Scotland, and later became an officer (dapifer) there. He was professed a monk of the Cistercian house at Rievaulx in Yorkshire (...

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Edward Booth

(b Lauingen, Swabia, c1195; d Cologne, Nov 15, 1280). German theologian, canonized in 1931. While studying at Padua he joined the Dominican order (1222–3). He taught principally at the Dominican Studium Generale, Cologne, where Thomas Aquinas was his pupil. Although he did not create the scholastic union of theology and philosophy that Thomas achieved, he brought together the scriptures, the Church Fathers, earlier medieval scripture exegesis and scholastic writings, as well as much of the newly accessible writings of Aristotle and Arab philosophers. In addition his intense interest in scientific observation and experiment expressed itself in his specifically scientific works, as well as in innumerable remarks elsewhere in his writings. He rejected music of the spheres as ‘ridiculous’, on the grounds that if it existed it would be more destructive and unbearable than thunder, and that observation showed that the movement of the heavens could not generate sound (...

Article

Alcuin  

Jane Bellingham

(b Northumbria, c735; d Tours, May 19, 804). Anglo-Saxon scholar, writer and poet. Little is known about Alcuin's early years, but he was educated at the cathedral school in York, which, under the guidance of magister, and later archbishop, Aelberht (d...

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James W. McKinnon

(b nr Metz, c775; d ?Metz, c850). Writer on liturgy and chant. He was probably educated under Alcuin at the monastery of St Martin in Tours, and served as archbishop of Trier from 809 and 814. In 813 he travelled to Constantinople at the behest of Charlemagne, returning the next year, apparently by way of Rome. He then began his literary activity, probably at Aachen. His longest and most significant work, the ...

Article

Amerus  

F. Alberto Gallo

(fl 1271). English theorist, active in Italy. He was a clerk and a member of the household of Cardinal Ottobono Fieschi (later Pope Adrian V), and wrote his Practica artis musice in the cardinal's house, perhaps in August 1271 at Viterbo where the cardinal was staying for the conclave. The work is explicitly designed for teaching practical music to boys and includes all the conventional notions of the period concerning ...

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Owen Wright

(d 1352). Persian scholar. The section on the mathematical sciences (quadrivium) in his encyclopedia Nafā’is al-funūn (‘Treasures of the sciences’), written in about 1340, contains a chapter on music which is one of the few theoretical texts in Persian from the period between the works of Quṭb al-Dīn Shīrāzī (...

Article

(fl late 14th century). Theorist. He is named only in the manuscript US-Cn 54.1, copied at Pavia in 1391. This manuscript attributes to him two widely distributed theoretical works: De contrapuncto quedam regule utiles (ed. in CoussemakerS, iii, 116–18), a set of contrapuntal instructions written in 26 pseudo-hexameters and found in seven further sources (see Sachs, 215 and 87), of which only two include the musical examples printed in ...

Article

Cecil Adkins and Bonnie J. Blackburn

(b Parma, before 1386; d c1440–43). Italian scholar and theorist. His many works, covering topics such as astronomy, astrology and medicine, also include a treatise De musica, notable for its influence on Gaffurius. He studied as a youth in Pavia and in about ...

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F. Alberto Gallo

(fl Padua, early 14th century). Italian poet and theorist. He was a judge in Padua between 1329 and 1337, and in 1332 wrote a treatise Summa artis rythimici (ed. R. Andrews, Bologna, 1977) which he dedicated to Alberto della Scala, ruler of the city. This is a work on metrics which describes, with examples, the main poetic forms of the 14th century (sonnet, ballata, ...

Article

Edward Booth and Sean Gallagher

(b Roccasecca, 1226; d Fossanova, March 7, 1274). Italian Dominican priest and theologian. He was described as ‘Doctor Angelicus’. He led a life of intense study, lecturing and writing at Cologne, Paris and Naples. His works form the most profound, comprehensive and ordered scholastic synthesis of the scriptures, patristic teaching and philosophy; his philosophical work consists primarily of a judicious interpretation of Aristotle and his Greek and Arab commentators, integrated with an often neglected element of Platonist thought (mostly derived through St Augustine and neo-Platonist intermediaries). He was canonized in ...

Article

John Koster

(b Zwolle, late 14th or early 15th century; d Paris, Sept 6, 1466). Franco-Flemish physician, astrologer, astronomer and author of a treatise on musical instruments, of which he was presumably also a maker. Even if he did not, as has been assumed, study at the University of Paris, he would have become familiar with much of its curriculum through Jean Fusoris, whom Arnaut called his master. Fusoris, who had received degrees in theology, arts and medicine at the University, was a physician, astrologer, astronomer and prolific maker of astronomical and horological devices. By ...