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Article

Howard Serwer

(b Görmar, nr Mühlhausen, Jan 8, 1732; d Mühlhausen, 1773). German writer on music and composer. He was a magister of philosophy, an honorary member of the German Society of Altdorf University, and an imperial poet laureate. His writings include an original work on theory, contributions to the current discussions of Rameau's theories which he favoured, and translations and editions of works of others. In addition, he published an important article on the state of music in Mühlhausen, two in defence of music in the church, and one on the German language. His compositions, consisting largely of sacred vocal works to his own texts, were mostly written for the Marienkirche in Mühlhausen, where he was Kantor and music director. They include a setting of the Passion and a yearly cycle of cantatas (texts published in ...

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Thomas Christensen

(b Paris, Nov 16, 1717; d Paris, Oct 29, 1783). French philosopher, mathematician and music theorist. He was abandoned by his mother as a child, and raised in a modest household by an artisan’s wife. A precocious child, he received a good education at a Jansenist school, and went on to study medicine and law. His true passion, though, was mathematics, and he soon abandoned his legal studies in order to devote all his energies to the subject. His particular interest lay in the field of rational mechanics, an important discipline in the 18th century, in which physical problems and phenomena were analysed in the abstract, using mathematics and geometry. D’Alembert submitted his first paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in ...

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Fredric Lieberman

(b Toulon, Feb 8, 1718; d Beijing, Oct 8, 1793). French writer on music. After a classical education, he entered the Society of Jesus as a novice in 1737, taught in Jesuit colleges for ten years, then, on being ordained, requested assignment to the China mission. He arrived in Beijing in ...

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Robert Stevenson

(b Planes, Alicante, Feb 15, 1740; d Rome, Jan 12, 1817). Spanish literary historian and music critic. He was professed in the Society of Jesus on 24 December 1754 and studied at Tarragona, Manresa, Gerona and Valencia from 1754 until 1763, when he was ordained a priest. Four years later, while teaching rhetoric and poetry at the University of Gandía, he was exiled with the rest of the Spanish Jesuits. He went first to Corsica, then to Italy, where he taught philosophy at Ferrara until ...

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Julian Rushton and Manuel Couvreur

(b Aubignan, Carpentras, July 27, 1721; d Paris, Dec 2, 1784). French man of letters. As a boy he mixed with the many musicians in the service of the Italian prelates, attracted to Carpentras by generous stipends. Arnaud came to Paris from Provence in ...

Article

Marita P. McClymonds

(b Moraleja de Coca, nr Segovia, Dec 26, 1747; d Paris, Oct 30, 1799). Spanish aesthetician and opera historian. After entering the Society of Jesus (1763) he studied in Madrid, Corsica and Italy, after which he abandoned the Society (1769...

Article

Joseph Vella Bondin

( b Rabat, May 5, 1748; d Rabat, Feb 6, 1809). Maltese composer, organist and theorist . After early studies with Michel'Angelo Vella, he entered the Conservatorio di S Onofrio a Capuana on 15 Oct 1763 as a convittore to study under Carlo Contumacci and the German Joseph Doll. He left in ...

Article

Almonte Howell and Alma Espinosa

(b San Adrián de Besós, nr Barcelona, Feb 4, 1730/31; d Madrid, 1797). Spanish mathematician. He attended university in France, at Toulouse and Perpignan. By 1755 he was in Paris, where he was acquainted with d’Alembert and became involved with work on the ...

Article

(b Paris, May 9, 1729; d Rouen, Nov 8, 1800). French composer and theorist. He combined the surnames of his father (Ballière) and mother (Delaisement) in an aristocratic form. After receiving the maître ès arts from the University of Paris in 1746, he settled in Rouen. A pharmacist and chemist by profession, he took an active scholarly interest in many subjects and was acquainted with Rousseau, Voltaire and other well-known contemporaries. In ...

Article

Patrizio Barbieri

(b Bergamo, Nov 26, 1741; d Bergamo, June 13, 1814). Italian theorist. Having entered the religious order of the Somaschi fathers, in 1761 he was invited to teach philosophy and mathematics in the college of Santa Croce in Padua. There he came into contact with the composer and theorist F.A. Vallotti, to whom he later became technical adviser on the mathematical aspect of harmonic theory; for example, he assisted in the calculations for Vallotti's system of temperament. From ...

Article

Title adopted by Edward Jones.

Article

Iain Fenlon

(b Turin, April 25, 1719; d Marylebone, London, May 5, 1789). Italian man of letters. His Fetonte sulle rive del Po was set by G.A. Giai (1750, Turin). In January 1751 he left Italy, where he had a considerable literary reputation, for an appointment at the Italian Opera in London. Shortly after his arrival he wrote two facetious pamphlets relating to a dispute between the actors and the lessee of the Opera. He adapted selected odes of Horace as a sort of Masonic oratorio. Seeking a composer able to avoid the vocal clichés and long ritornellos of Italian opera and ‘to temper alternately the solemnity of church music with the brilliancy of the theatrical’, Baretti chose Philidor, with whom he discussed ‘every syllable … with respect to the best way of expressing musically the meaning of Horace’. ...

Article

Philippe Vendrix

(b Cassis, Jan 20, 1716; d Paris, Jan 30, 1795). French archaeologist and man of letters. Having entered the Lazarists, Barthélemy conceived an early passion for Oriental antiquities. On leaving the seminary he decided not to take holy orders and returned to his family before settling in Paris in ...

Article

Catherine Kintzler

(b Alland’huy, Ardennes, May 6, 1713; d Paris, July 14, 1780). French aesthetician. He was professor of rhetoric at the universities of Reims and Paris, the Collège de Lisieux and the Collège de Navarre, and then of Greek and Roman philosophy at the Collège Royal, Paris. It was his ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Berlin, June 17, 1714; d Frankfurt an der Oder, May 26, 1762). German philosopher. The founder of aesthetics as a subdiscipline of philosophy, he was the son of a military chaplain in Berlin who had been assistant to the Pietist theologian and pedagogue A.H. Francke. He studied first at the Grauen Kloster school in Berlin, but in ...

Article

David Johnson

(b Laurencekirk, Kincardineshire, Oct 25, 1735; d Aberdeen, Aug 18, 1803). Scottish philosopher and writer on musical aesthetics. He was the son of a farmer, and became professor of moral philosophy and logic at Marischal College, Aberdeen, and entered polite London society on the strength of his ...

Article

Cynthia M. Gessele and Jean Gribenski

(b Dauendorf, Bas-Rhin, March 26, 1739; d London, after 1808). French theorist and teacher. After obtaining degrees in philosophy (1760) and law (1762) from the University of Strasbourg, he established himself in Paris in 1766 and began to study music. In ...

Article

Clive Greated

(b Groningen, Feb 8, 1700; d Basle, March 17, 1782). Swiss physicist. He was the second son of Johann Bernoulli, the leading mathematician of his age, and nephew of Jakob Bernoulli, one of the greatest of all mathematicians. He was at first inclined towards mathematics, but turned more and more to experiment suggested or supported by mathematical theory. After taking the doctorate in medicine at the age of 21, he went to Venice to continue his studies but instead published noteworthy mathematical papers and was invited to the Academy of St Petersburg in ...

Article

A. Louise H. Earhart

(b Dijon, Nov 1, 1702; d Paris, Oct 19, 1781). French theorist and composer. His opera L'enlèvement d'Europe was produced at Versailles in 1739 and two of his motets were performed at the Concert Spirituel: Laudate Dominum in 1749, and Domine, Dominus noster...

Article

Albert Cohen

(b Lyons, Feb 13, 1709; d Lyons, Aug 31, 1794). French academician and musician. He was elected to membership in the Académie des Beaux-Arts of Lyons in 1736, and in the Académie des Sciences et des Belles-Lettres in 1739; when these bodies combined in ...