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Article

Warren Anderson, Thomas J. Mathiesen and Robert Anderson

(bc450 bce; dc385 bce). Greek dramatist. The chief poet of Athenian Old Comedy, he wrote more than 40 plays, of which 11 have survived.

Of the works of Aristophanes’ first period (427–421 bce), the revised Clouds includes many references to music; the most noteworthy are the mockery of ...

Article

Calvin Bower

(b Rome, c480 ce; d Pavia, c524 ce). Roman writer and statesman. He was born into one of the foremost patrician families of Rome; following the death of his father in 487 ce he was taken into the home of Symmachus, another patrician. Boethius learnt Greek philosophy and the liberal arts from Symmachus and married his daughter. Both men were colleagues in later senatorial struggles....

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Thomas J. Mathiesen

( fl 4th or early 5th century ce). Translator and commentator . His commentary on Plato's Timaeus (only to 53c) is dedicated to Hosius, long thought to be the bishop of Corduba (d 358). More recently, it has been proposed that the dedication is to a Milanese official of about 395 and that Calcidius was a Christian Neoplatonist active in Milan whose writings were known to St Ambrose. The earliest surviving manuscripts, ...

Article

Lawrence Gushee and Bradley Jon Tucker

( fl Carthage, ?early 5th century). Latin writer . His only known work, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii (formerly often called Satyricon because of its affinity to Menippean satire) in nine books, is a fantasy in which seven bridesmaids, one for each of the artes...

Article

Calvin Bower

(b Scylacium [Scylletium; now Squillace, Calabria], c485 ce; d Vivarium [now Stalleti], nr Scylacium, c580 ce. Roman statesman and writer. A member of an ancient patrician family, Cassiodorus was a representative of the Roman senatorial class who worked with Ostrogothic rulers in their administration of Roman government during the ...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Arpinum [now Arpino], Jan 3, 106 bce; d Caieta [now Gaeta], Dec 7, 43 bce). Roman statesman, orator and man of letters. The hundreds of references to music in his writings (see Wille, 1967) include no comprehensive statement of theory; individual passages show that his usual eclecticism prevailed here as well. The Epicurean condemnation of music and of late Stoic musical theory by a philosopher well known to him personally, ...

Article

Egeria  

James W. McKinnon

(fl late 4th century ce). Pilgrim nun of Spain or Gaul. Her diary, containing a detailed description of ancient Jerusalem liturgy, survives in a single 11th-century manuscript copy, which was discovered at Arezzo by G.F. Gamurrini in 1884. He attributed the work to one St Silvia, sister of the Roman prefect, Rufinus – hence its earlier title ‘Peregrinatio Silviae’ – but it is now thought to be by a Spanish or Gallican nun, Egeria (the preferred spelling), mentioned by the 7th-century abbot Valerius. From references in the text to contemporary persons and events, liturgical historians have come to date the time of Egeria's pilgrimage to between 381 and 384....

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl Rhegium [now Reggio Calabria], c400 BC). Greek writer from the south-west coast of Italy. He was the author of a treatise (now lost) On the Ancient Poets and Musicians, a major source for portions of the Pseudo-Plutarch On Music. The musical writings of the philosopher known as Heraclides Ponticus may have been an intermediary source. Pseudo-Plutarch mentioned the author, title and contents of this treatise in ...

Article

(b Zadar, 1472; d Zadar, 1538). Croatian cosmographer, mathematician, astrologer and physicist. He is known particularly for his ingenious theory of ebb and flow. In 1507–8 he taught astrology and mathematics at the university of Padua and was later active as a physician in his own town. His ideas on music are contained in two published treatises: ...

Article

Andreas Giger

(b c1215; d Viterbo, Sept 10, 1279). English theologian and scientist. He was a teacher of arts in Paris (c1237–45), noted for his extensive knowledge of Aristotle and for his numerous writings on subjects ranging from the liberal arts to religion. He later joined the Dominicans and was provincial prior of the order in England between ...

Article

Thomas J. Mathiesen

( fl first half of the 5th century ce ). Latin writer . He is thought by some to have been the prefect in Spain (399–400 ce) or the proconsul in Africa (410 ce) cited in the Codex Theodosius but now identified with Theodosius, praetorian prefect in Italy in ...

Article

Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Gadara, 110–100 bce; d ?Herculaneum, 40–35 bce). Epicurean philosopher, poet and critic of music . Philodemus went to Italy in about 65 bce and remained there until his death. He was the author of a treatise On Music, extensive parts of which have survived in a series of fragments discovered in the Herculaneum papyri, buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 ...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

( b Sarsina, Umbria, c 254 bce; d c 184 bce). Roman comic playwright . 20 of his comedies and a portion of another have survived, all fabulae palliatae (i.e. plays with Greek settings and costumes). They are free adaptations of Greek originals by Menander...

Article

André Barbera

(fl second half of the 6th century bce). Greek philosopher and religious teacher. Born on Samos, he emigrated to Croton around 530 and later settled in Metapontum in southern Italy; both moves may have been caused by political or religious persecution. He believed in the transmigration of souls, established a ...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Calagurris, Spain, 30–35 ce; d Rome, after c94 ce). Roman orator and writer on rhetoric. He may have begun his studies in Spain; he completed them at Rome and there went on to gain both fame and wealth. In recognition of his remarkable skill at teaching rhetoric, he received a regular income from the imperial treasury, the first of his profession to be granted this honour. The literary testimonial to his gifts is the ...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl Rome and Alexandria, c200 ce). Greek physician and head of the sceptical school of philosophy during its final phase. His writings are divided into two major groups: the Outlines of Pyrrhonism, comprising three books summarizing sceptical doctrines and criticizing other philosophical systems, and ...

Article

Terence  

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b north Africa, c190 bce; d ?159 bce). Roman comic playwright. Only six plays survive, all fabulae palliatae (i.e. with Greek settings; see Plautus, Titus Maccius). Like Plautus, he adapted specimens of Greek New Comedy, but with far less lyric diversity (only 25 lyric lines out of 6000) and a heavy preponderance of spoken dialogue. The musical element was nevertheless more important than appears from the text; a considerable portion of the plays is recitative ...

Article

Lawrence Gushee

(b Bavaria; d Hirsau, July 4, 1091). Benedictine writer on music and astronomy . Wilhelm was educated in the monastery of St Emmeram, Regensburg, where his works are commonly believed to have been written. He was made abbot of the monastery of Hirsau in the Black Forest in ...