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Article

Elizabeth A. Clendinning

An amusement park is a commercially-operated, outdoor venue that offers games, rides, and other types of entertainment, including music. The amusement park concept originated in the pleasure gardens of 17th-century Europe, which were originally large landscaped outdoor spaces primary devoted to games with a few refreshment stands. Dances and social and instrumental concerts became commonly integrated into these pleasure gardens in the 18th century. (...

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Former name of the Tanglewood Music Center, an educational institution in Lenox, Massachusetts.

See Tanglewood .

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Sara Velez and Megan E. Hill

International festival of orchestral and chamber music, solo recitals, and staged works, established in 1963 in Aptos, California. It was founded by Lou Harrison, the bassoonist Robert Hughes, and Ted Toews, an instructor at Cabrillo College. Held for two weeks in August in the Santa Cruz Civic Auditorium and at various other locations, such as the Mission San Juan Bautista, the festival is noted for its innovative programming and emphasis on the works of living composers: it has staged at least 120 world premieres and over 60 US premieres. The first music director, Gerhard Samuel, was succeeded by Richard Williams in ...

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The name of several concert halls in American cities endowed by the philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, the most notable of which is the acoustically renowned hall in New York built in 1891; see New york .

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Marco Kasel

Music has been a major part of entertainment at sea since the height of the “golden age” of ocean liners in the 1930s. Initially, cruise liners at the start of the 20th century were built to transport passengers from one port to another, mostly across the transatlantic from Europe to New York City, and more often than not, transported immigrants who weren’t expected for a return trip. On the other hand, 21st-century cruise ships are built for vacationing purposes, which means passengers expect to be entertained throughout their voyage....

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Romanian music festival. Held in Bucharest every other year in August and September, it lasts for over three weeks. It was established in 1958, three years after George Enescu’s death, and in his honour. The decision was also politically motivated, as the communist regime of the time was eager to prove its ability as a non-capitalist cultural power. Since then, it has changed on many levels and has become not only the grandest classical music festival in Romania and Eastern Europe, but has gained a growing renown within Europe’s important festival scene....

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Romanian contemporary music festival. It has been held the last week of every May in Bucharest since 1991. The festival was founded at the initiative of the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists and of Ştefan Niculescu (1927–2008), one of the most important Romanian composers of the past generation. It was the first international festival organized in Romania that was entirely dedicated to contemporary music....

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

An annual festival of music, dance and theatre, founded in 1961 by Aharon Z. Propes, director of the Ministry of Tourism, with the intent of making the young state, already renowned for its high musical standards, into an international artistic centre catering to local audiences and attracting summer tourists. The first festival hosted Pablo Casals, the Budapest Quartet and Rudolf Serkin, thus establishing the predilection for Western classical music. In ...

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Sarah Suhadolnik

Jazz division of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York. In 1987 Lincoln Center launched Classical Jazz, its first concert series devoted solely to jazz. In 1996 JALC became an autonomous jazz division with wynton Marsalis at the helm. Marsalis has continued to work as the artistic director of JALC and the music director of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. This ensemble maintains an extensive repertoire of classic jazz works while continuing to commission and premiere new pieces. It tours extensively, frequently collaborating with guest artists, and participates in JALC programs, such as the annual Essentially Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition & Festival. JALC also maintains a busy schedule of concerts by visiting artists, lectures, and jazz education initiatives....

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Charles Garrett

International jazz concert series founded in Los Angeles by norman Granz.

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Arts complex in Washington, DC, inaugurated in 1971; see Washington, DC

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Bulgarian music festival. The festival began as an initiative of the Ruse Philharmonic Orchestra, the conductor Sasha Popov, and the conductor and composer Iliya Temkov, for the purpose of fostering friendship and cultural cooperation between Bulgaria and the German Democratic Republic. The first concert, given on ...

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Chamber music programme founded in Marlboro, Vermont, in 1951 by Rudolf Serkin (former artistic director), Adolf and Hermann Busch, and Marcel and Louis Moyse. They conceived it as a workshop in which there would be no students or teachers, only participants. Casals, Schneider, Galimir and Horszowski are among the artists who participated regularly. Public performances are given weekly at Marlboro College during a five-week summer season. The festival has reached a wide audience through its recording series, the many taped performances it makes available to broadcasting stations, and through Musicians from Marlboro, a touring programme created in ...

Article

NPR  

Timothy M. Crain

NPR, formerly known as National Public Radio, is a privately and publicly funded nonprofit membership media group. Its primary focus involves the production, syndication, and distribution of news and cultural programming to US public radio stations. Individual NPR stations, however, may broadcast programming from various sources that have no formal affiliation with NPR. NPR also manages the Public Radio Satellite System, which distributes NPR programs and other programming from independent producers and networks....

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Susan Key

Parlor music generally refers to music composed for domestic use from c1820 to World War I, consisting primarily of songs for voice and piano but also including compositions for solo piano as well as transcriptions and arrangements adaptable for a variety of instruments. Both vocal and instrumental music were aimed at an amateur market and intended for performance in the home, primarily but not exclusively by females. Instrumental music for the parlor was most commonly for piano or melodeon but demonstrated flexibility according to circumstances, with interchangeable parts for a variety of popular domestic instruments such as flute, guitar, or violin. The music was published in individual ...

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Susan Feder and Michael Mauskapf

Orchestral programs modeled after European promenade concerts of the 19th century, in which light classical music was played while the audience was served refreshments. The development of pops concerts in America reflected an emerging emphasis on the audience and an explicitly articulated division between so-called serious and light classical music propagated by conductor Theodore Thomas and others. Such concerts were traditionally structured in three parts, in which lively pieces—overtures, marches, and galops—were played in the outer sections while the middle section typically included waltzes and occasionally more serious works; encores were a regular feature. These concerts often took place in outdoor venues during the summer season, and featured audience promenades during the intermissions. Initially, works by European composers such as Rossini, Grieg, Liszt, and J. Strauss dominated the programs of pops concerts, but excerpts from musicals and operettas by De Koven and Herbert, among others, soon became a significant component. In general these concerts were understood as a vehicle to reach new audiences and broaden the appeal of orchestras and orchestral music....

Article

Laura B. Schnitker

A type of radio station operating on a college or university campus that is run by students. Although such stations did not achieve prominent status in the music industry until the late 1970s, when they became stages for up-and-coming artists, college radio is one of the older types of broadcasting in the United States....

Article

Gillian Turnbull

Radio that is owned by a private, nonprofit organization and publicly funded, usually by donations from citizens or a local community. Community radio differs from public radio, which is government-supported; college radio, which is university-supported; and commercial radio, which is privately owned. As noted by Howley, community radio should not be conflated with alternative media, which strives to overturn or alter prevailing media systems. Rather, community radio is participatory in nature, drawing involvement from the station’s stakeholders and listeners but maintaining the structures and practices common to public and commercial stations. It is assumed that there is a high degree of accountability to listeners, who predominantly run and fund the station. The often limited amount of advertising time allotted to community stations dictates the need for external fundraising through pledge drives, grants, and donations. Community radio can serve a specific geographical region or a particular demographic or special-interest group. Programming includes music that is not mainstream (for example, independent artists or more obscure genres) and local-interest news and shows. It purports to represent marginalized or social and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in commercially oriented media. In its programming, the aim of community radio is to provide analysis of current events and culture that is otherwise absent from the public and corporate arms of broadcasting....

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Bulgarian music festival held annually from May to June. The first festival took place on 24 May 1970. Co-organizers of the festival are the Metropolitan Municipality, the Ministry of Culture, and the National Palace of Culture, with the active cooperation of various national and international cultural and media institutions, foreign embassies, and foundations. The main objective of the festival is to present to Bulgarian audiences high quality performances of the most significant music from Bulgaria and around the globe. Establishing its reputation as the most significant festival in Sofia, the Festival became in ...

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The oldest music festival in Bulgaria and one of the oldest still in existence in Europe. It is held every year from June to July. It was adopted as a member at the European Festivals Association in 1978.

The first Varna public music celebrations were held from 23 July to ...