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Article

Baschet  

Hugh Davies and Laura Maes

French sound sculptors and instrument inventors. Bernard (b Paris, France, 24 Aug 1917) and his brother François (b Paris, France, 30 March 1920) developed a variety of sound sculptures and new instruments under the generic name Structures sonores. Bernard Baschet trained and originally worked as an engineer, and then (...

Article

Founded in 1935, the British Council promotes cultural co-operation between Britain and other countries with support from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; it is represented in over 100 countries with offices in over 200 cities. It assists over 1500 arts events each year selected for their potential to reach key groups in individual countries, including the younger generation, and to gain recognition for British artistic achievement. In music (including jazz, traditional and rock music as well as British classical, early and contemporary music), tours are usually organized by overseas promoters. The Council has sponsored recordings and provides information and advice on British music and music education, as well as scores, to professional users overseas, including through the quarterly magazine ...

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The music department is a part of the Research Institute of the Arts, which also includes Fine Art Studies, Theatre Studies, Screen Arts Studies (after 1988), and Architectural Studies (since 2010). The music department existed independently until 1988 as an Institute of Music. The Institute of Music was established in ...

Article

Peter Dickinson

A program for study, research, and performance of American music, based at Keele University, Staffordshire, England. It was founded in 1974 by Peter Dickinson, the first professor of music at the university’s newly established department of music. The center, which housed an excellent collection of American music materials, sponsored the Ives centenary concerts (...

Article

Michael H.S. van Eekeren

A non-profit organization promoting the work of Dutch composers and musicians. Although there are other promoters of Dutch music in the Netherlands, CNM is unique in the range of its support. It concerns itself with contemporary and older music, with improvised and amateur music; it produces CDs and books, organizes concerts in the Netherlands, stimulates educational projects and collaborates extensively with Dutch public radio stations....

Article

College of the School of English Church Music (later the Royal School of Church Music) opened at Chislehurst, Kent, in 1929. See London, §VIII, 4.

Article

Alan L. Spurgeon

Professional organization for Dalcroze teachers. The organization promotes the artistic and pedagogical principles of Emile Jacques-Dalcroze (1865–1950), a Swiss composer and teacher whose approach to music education consists of three components: eurythmics, which teaches concepts of rhythm, structure, and musical expression through movement; solfége, which develops an understanding of pitch, scale, and tonality through activities emphasizing aural comprehension and vocal improvisation; and improvisation, which develops an understanding of form and meaning through spontaneous musical creation using movement, voice, and instruments. Dalcroze intended that the three subjects be intertwined so that the development of the inner ear, an internal muscular sense, and creative expression might work together to form the core of basic musicianship. The Dalcroze Society of America began to take shape in ...

Article

Denise M.M. Dalphond

Form of electronic music that originated in Detroit among African American youth in the early 1980s. Local black radio, house and block parties, DJ crews, and such musical influences as German electronic rock, Italo disco, electro funk, and electronic art music formed the foundation of what eventually became a globally recognized form of electronic dance music. Detroit techno is characterized by repeating, syncopated rhythms typically in common time (4/4) with tempos ranging from 120 to 150 beats per minute. The sounds produced by early analog synthesizers as well as the Roland TR-909 drum machine are also distinguishing features....

Article

Josef Häusler

Town in Germany. It was noted in the 20th century for its festival of contemporary music. It was the home of the Fürstenbergs from 1488; they maintained a court chapel and opera which achieved particularly high standards during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and employed musicians such as J.W. Kalliwoda, J.A. Sixt, Joseph Fiala and Conradin Kreutzer. The works of Mozart, Dittersdorf, Umlauf and J.A. Hiller were particularly popular there and Italian works by Cimarosa, Gazzaniga, Piccinni, Sarti, Salieri and Paisiello were frequently heard. It became an internationally known centre for contemporary music between ...

Article

Johan Kolsteeg

Dutch organization based in Amsterdam. It was set up in 1947 with assistance from the Stichting Nederlandse Muziekbelangen (Foundation for Netherlands Musical Interests) and central government, with the aim of documenting and publishing modern Dutch music. This move was prompted by the loss of a number of scores, including some by Willem Pijper, in the bombing of Rotterdam in ...

Article

French château, south of Paris, used for musical performances in the 17th and 18th centuries; see Paris, §V, 2. The American Conservatory, at which Nadia Boulanger taught, is at Fontainebleau.

Paris, §V, 2: Music at court outside Paris: Fontainebleau

Article

Romanian orchestra founded in 1868 in Bucharest. Previously known as the Romanian Philharmonic Society Orchestra, since 1955 it has borne the name of Romania’s most prominent composer, George Enescu. It is the oldest orchestra in Eastern Europe and its headquarters is the Palace of the Romanian Athenaeum, a concert hall with a capacity of 800, and a symbol of Bucharest’s cultural richness....

Article

Romanian conservatory founded in 1919 in Cluj-Napoca in central Transylvania. It comprises today three main faculties: musical performance, music theory, and musical theatre. Since 1998, a fourth branch has been founded in the city of Piatra Neamţ, situated in a different region in northeast Romania. Initially founded as the Conservatory for Music and Dramatic Arts, the institution was also named the Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts (from ...

Article

Friedrich W. Riedel

Benedictine abbey near Krems, Lower Austria. It was founded in 1083 by Bishop Altmann of Passau as a monastery for prebendaries. In 1094 it was taken over by Benedictines from St Blasien in the Black Forest, and rapidly became an important centre of religious and intellectual life. After a period of decline during the Reformation, Göttweig flourished in the Baroque era, particularly under the abbot Gottfried Bessel (...

Article

Oliver Strunk

Italian monastery and library. Some 19 km from Rome, among the Castelli Romani in the Alban hills at an altitude of well over 320 metres, stands the monastery (Badia Greca) of Grottaferrata, founded in 1004 by St Nilus the Younger, a monk of the Greek rite from Rossano in Calabria. The site had been donated by Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and it took its name, as did the little town that grew up around it, from a late Roman remain, a sort of tomb or oratory with barred windows, adjoining which the monks built their church, dedicated on ...

Article

Carlos de Pontes Leça

Portuguese organization for supporting the arts, charity, education and sciences. It was founded on 18 July 1956, in accordance with the will of Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian (b Istanbul, 29 March 1869; d Lisbon, 20 July 1955), a pioneer of the Middle Eastern oil industry, an enlightened amateur of the arts and philanthropist. The foundation's headquarters are in Lisbon, but its activities, though centred in Portugal, extend to many other countries....

Article

Danica Petrović

Serbian musicology institute founded by composer Petar Konjović in Belgrade within the SASA in 1948. As the first director, Konjović proposed three main fields of research: a) the history of Serbian music from the Middle Ages to the end of the 19th century; b) contemporary Serbian music and current musicological questions; and c) Serbian folk music. The first members of the Institute were well known Belgrade musicians. The first Belgrade musicologists and ethnomusicologists were only beginning their education at that time. The work of the institute was done by a small number of researchers during the first six decades of its existence. These researchers wrote the first history of Serbian music and the first monographs of Serbian composers; initiated the studies of the aesthetics of music in Serbia; established the Byzantine roots of the Serbian Chant and the continuity of its development over the previous two centuries; and worked on the dynamic developments in Serbian music in the 20th century. The ethnomusicological research focused on Serbian vocal, instrumental, and dance traditions....

Article

International organization. It was initiated in Belgium in 1940 by Marcel Cuvelier to propagate live music and related arts in schools, universities and among working youth, regardless of political or doctrinaire considerations. It has established an effective international network of artistic exchanges, bringing many young performers before the public through concert tours and competitions; it also encourages performance by young people by establishing music camps and forming international orchestras directed by outstanding conductors. In keeping with its broad humanitarian aims it was a founder-member of the International Music Council in ...

Article

Altman Kellner and Robert N. Freeman

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 777 by Duke Tassilo of Bavaria to provide a Christian mission and to protect the area from the neighbouring Slavs and Hungarians. Plainchant was sung according to the Beneventan rite, which, along with the educational system, was modified according to the rules of Benedikt von Aniane of Aachen in 828. From that time until the 17th century there was an inner and an outer school: the latter was enlarged in ...

Article

Lambach  

David Wyn Jones

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 1056 on the site of a fortress protecting the confluence of the rivers Traun and Ager, and was sanctioned by Emperor Heinrich IV in 1061. The first monks came from the monastery of Münsterschwarzach near Würzburg, and in ...