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James F. Bell and Clive Greated

(b Potsdam, Aug 31, 1821; d Berlin, Sept 8, 1894). German scientist. He studied medicine at the Friedrich-Wilhelm Institut, Berlin, obtaining the doctorate in 1842. He also studied mathematics, physics and philosophy, and attended lectures at Berlin University. After service as an army surgeon, in ...

Article

James F. Bell and Clive Greated

(b Königsberg, Nov 26, 1832; d Paris, Oct 2, 1901). German physicist. Although Helmholtz was his principal professor at the University of Königsberg, Koenig's research was not in acoustics. After receiving the PhD in physics, Koenig apprenticed himself to the Parisian violin maker Vuillaume. Koenig completed his apprenticeship in ...

Article

James F. Bell and Murray Campbell

(b Erlangen, March 16, 1789; d Munich, July 6, 1854). German scientist. He studied mathematics at the University of Erlangen, taking a degree in 1811. He spent the rest of his life in a series of undistinguished posts, teaching mathematics and later physics at a relatively elementary level, apart from a period (...

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R.W.B. Stephens and Murray Campbell

(b Langford Grove, nr Maldon, Essex, Nov 12, 1842; d Witham, Essex, June 30, 1919). English scientist. He was educated at Cambridge University, where he was Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics (1879–84); later (1887–1905) he held the professorship of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution, London, and in ...

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James F. Bell, R.W.B. Stephens and Murray Campbell

(b Mézières, June 30, 1791; d Paris, March 16, 1841). French scientist. He was trained at Strasbourg in medicine, taking a degree in 1816. He had long been interested in acoustics when, in 1816, he abandoned medicine and went to Paris, where he came under the guidance of Biot. He became a professor of natural philosophy in ...

Article

Murray Campbell

(b 1892; d 1979). American engineer and acoustician. He had a distinguished professional career as an electrical engineer, specializing in research into radio wave transmission. In 1957 he retired from the directorship of radio research at Bell Telephone Laboratories. An enthusiastic amateur cellist, Schelleng undertook a programme of research into the acoustics of the violin family in his retirement. The combination of his musical experience and his background in electrical engineering resulted in a novel and extremely fruitful approach to the study of bowed string instruments, in which he drew an analogy between the exchange of vibrational energy between the string and the body of the instrument and the flow of electrical current round a circuit. His seminal paper, ‘The Violin as a Circuit’ (...