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The tuning of an instrument. See also Accordatura and Scordatura.

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Being in tune.

Article

Bruce Carr

A term, meaning ‘not electric’, used in this special sense to designate a recording cut with a stylus activated directly (through a diaphragm) by sound waves rather than by electronic impulses, or, as in ‘acoustic guitar’, an instrument not amplified electronically. It was first applied to recordings in the early 1930s (electric recordings were first made in ...

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The maximum amount of disturbance from the equilibrium state in a vibration or wave. See Sound, §5 .

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Murray Campbell

(b Portland, OR, April 29, 1911; d Los Angeles, Oct 28, 1988). American acoustician. After studying at Reed College, Portland (BA 1932), he undertook postgraduate study at the University of California in Berkeley (MA 1936, PhD 1940). His early research work was in nuclear physics, working under the supervision of Ernest Lawrence in the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. In ...

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An acoustical phenomenon. See Beats .

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Beats  

Clive Greated

An acoustical phenomenon, useful in tuning instruments, resulting from the interference of two sound waves of slightly different frequencies. The number of beats per second equals the difference in frequency between the two notes: a pitch of 440 Hz will make four beats per second with one of 444 (or 436); three with one of 443 (or 437); two with 442 (or 438); one with 441 (or 439); and the beats will disappear if the two notes are in perfect unison. ...

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Murray Campbell

(b Chicago, Jan 2, 1925; d Cleveland, Aug 4, 1987). American acoustician. His parents being missionaries, he spent much of his childhood in Lahore. After returning to the USA to study at Washington University, St Louis (AB 1948, PhD 1952), Benade was appointed in ...

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Murray Campbell

(b Paris, Nov 16, 1866; d Toulouse, Nov 15, 1953). French physicist and acoustician. He studied physics at the Sorbonne (1883) and at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (1885–8). After teaching at the Collège de France and the Lycée at Agen, in ...

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Murray Campbell

(b London, August 26, 1933). English physicist and acoustician. He obtained a BSc in physics from Imperial College, London, later gaining the doctorate there with research into high-amplitude stress waves. After holding a research fellowship at the electronic music laboratory of the Canadian National Research Council in Ottawa, he worked for five years in the acoustics section of the UK National Physical Laboratory, where he carried out research on the psycho-acoustic perception of short duration and very low frequency sounds. In ...

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Cent  

Clive Greated

A small logarithmic unit used in the accurate description of musical intervals, based on frequency ratios. The interval, in cents, between two tones of frequency f1 and f2 is 3986 log10 (f2/f1). 100 cents is equal to one equally tempered semitone. ...

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C. Truesdell and Clive Greated

(b Wittenberg, Nov 30, 1756; d Breslau [now Wrocław], April 3, 1827). German acoustician. He studied law at Leipzig University before turning to scientific studies. He invented two instruments, the ‘euphon’ and the ‘klavizylinder’, both of which were variants of the glass harmonica. However, he owes his fame to his celebrated experiments on the nodal patterns and corresponding frequencies of vibration plates. He showed that the vibration patterns, often called Chladni figures, could be made visible by sprinkling sand on the plate. The sand is thrown up on vibrating areas and collects around nodal lines. Chladni travelled through Europe playing on his instruments and demonstrating his experiments before many persons and institutions; he encountered Goethe, Lichtenberg, Olbers, Laplace, Napoleon and other notable men of the period. Chladni's experiments stimulated much early work on the vibration of plates and bars and indeed so impressed the Académie des Sciences, Paris, that it offered a prize for a successful explanation of his sand figures and the motion of elastic surfaces in general. His work helped to form the foundation of modern theories, capable of predicting precise vibration patterns for violin and guitar top plates and the soundboards of keyboard instruments....

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Murray Campbell

(b Cleveland, OH, July 19, 1915; d Pittsburgh, PA, Feb 10, 2010). American scientist and acoustician. After studying physics at Case Institute of Technology (BS 1937), he carried out research in nuclear physics at the University of Illinois (PhD 1941). He then joined the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, remaining with the firm for the rest of his professional life; he retired in ...

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Clive Greated

(b Cleveland, July 19, 1915). American physicist and acoustician. After studying physics at the Case School of Applied Science (BS 1937) he obtained the PhD from the University of Illinois. From 1941 to 1980 he held various research and management positions at the Westinghouse Corp. His research into the acoustics of the flute, carried out in a small laboratory at his home, has contributed significantly to what is known today about the behaviour of flutes and organ pipes. Several of his papers are recognised as standard reference material. His theory of feedback and how this relates to the means by which the flautist produces the desired frequencies and loudness is particularly relevant to performance. He also studied the significance of mouth resonance and the effect of mode stretching on harmonic generation. His work on the intonation of both antique and modern flutes and his critical assessment of Theobald Boehm's methods have helped in shaping current views on the historical development of the instrument....

Article

Clive Greated

A sound that may be heard when two loud musical tones are sounded together but is not present when either of the tones is sounded separately. If the frequencies of two pure tones are f 1 and f 2, the frequencies of the combination tones are ...

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Comma  

Clive Greated

A small pitch interval of fundamental importance to temperament and tuning. There are two types of comma. The ‘syntonic comma’ (also called ‘comma of Didymus’ or ‘Ptolemaic comma’) is the difference between a just major 3rd and four just perfect 5ths less two octaves, which is 21.51 cents. The ‘Pythagorean comma’ (or ‘ditonic comma’) is 23.46 cents, being the difference between twelve 5ths and seven octaves. For practical tuning purposes, the difference between the two types of comma is often ignored and the comma is taken to equal 24 cents....

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Murray Campbell

(b Munich, Aug 16, 1905; d Miesbach, Oct 16, 1990). German acoustician. He studied mechanical and electrical engineering at the Technical University of Berlin, gaining his doctorate in 1932 for a thesis on sound absorption by porous surfaces. Cremer subsequently engaged in acoustical research at the Technical University and the Heinrich Hertz Institute in Berlin. In ...

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Charles Garrett

Music associated with the Creole people, of mixed European and African descent, in the gulf region of the United States, particularly Louisiana. For further discussion see articles on Jazz , New orleans , New orleans music , Swamp pop , and Zydeco . louis moreau Gottschalk integrated Creole folk music into his compositions. Well-known Creole musicians include ...

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Decibel  

Clive Greated

A logarithmic unit used for expressing the difference in level between sounds of different intensity or electrical signals of different power. It is related entirely to the ratio of the two quantities. If two signals have intensities I1 and I2 then their intensity ratio (in dB) is 10 log...

Article

Clive Greated

When two pure tones are sounded, a lower note of frequency equal to the difference of the frequencies of the two individual notes may be heard. This is the simple difference tone (also sometimes called the ‘Tartini tone’). It is usually ascribed to non-linearities in the audio system producing the sounds or to non-linearities in the hearing mechanism, and is one of the combination tones with frequency ...