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Article

Family who in the 9th century, according to tradition, invented the Tiberian system of Hebrew Ekphonetic notation. See also Jewish music, §III, 2, (ii).

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In medieval music, the word used to denote the second-time ending (punctum clausum), the first being labelled Aperto .

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Cloch  

Peter Crossley-Holland

Clapper-bell of ancient and medieval Wales. Several types were known, all with suspension loops. They include one quadrangular and one circular bell of Romano-British (La Tène) type, found in the Vale of Neath, and Celtic ‘saints’ bells’, including a long quadrangular bell now in the National Museum of Wales. Historical references to the cloch date from the 12th century, but the traditional performing practice has not survived....

Article

Alastair Dick

Medieval double-headed cylindrical drum of India. In the 13th-century Sa ṅgītaratnākara it is described as about 48 cm long and 25 cm in diameter. The heads are stretched on creeper hoops which have seven holes for tension cords. The drum is carried on a shoulder strap and played on the left side with the hand and on the right with a crook-stick. As the description is very similar to that of the medieval Arab ...

Article

Djnar  

Plucked chordophone of medieval Armenia, supposedly resembling a folk lyre.

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French notary and writer, author of the roman de Fauvel.

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Alastair Dick

(from Sanskrit gharsa: ‘rubbing’). Medieval barrel drum of India, played partly by friction. It is described as similar to the hu ḍukkā. It was played with much ‘booming’ (go ṃkāra): the thumb and middle fingertips of the right hand, smeared with beeswax, rubbed the skin; the left-hand fingers struck the skin and the thumb pressed it. The modern ...

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Ghanon  

Plucked string instrument of medieval Armenia with 60 silk strings; possibly analogous to the k’anon.

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Ernest H. Sanders, Peter M. Lefferts, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

See Motet

Article

Harold S. Powers and Frans Wiering

In 

See Mode

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Harold S. Powers and Frans Wiering

In 

See Mode

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Leeman L. Perkins and Patrick Macey

In 

See Motet

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Ernest H. Sanders, Peter M. Lefferts, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

See Motet

Article

Harold S. Powers and Frans Wiering

In 

See Mode

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Malcolm Boyd

In 

See Motet

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Harold S. Powers, Frans Wiering, James Porter, James Cowdery, Richard Widdess, Ruth Davis, Marc Perlman, Stephen Jones and Allan Marett

In 

See Mode

Article

Kamrā  

Alastair Dick

Paired wooden or bamboo clappers described in Sanskrit texts of medieval India. They are of acacia wood or thick bamboo, about 24 cm long and 4 cm wide, and taper slightly at the end. They are played either with a pair in each hand, held loosely by the root of the thumb and middle finger and clapped by shaking the wrists, or with one pair held between the thumb and ring finger of the right hand and struck against the left thumb and fist. The diminutive ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Medieval double-headed drum of India, probably cylindrical. It is described as having been about 42 to 48 cm long, 24 to 28 cm in diameter, and 5 mm thick in the shell, which was made of citrus wood. The close-fitting heads were attached with thread and skin to iron hoops which had 14 holes; the threads passed through every second hole to form a net lacing (...

Article

Alastair Dick

The name of an oboe mentioned or described in medieval Sanskrit texts of India. Both the 12th-century Mānasollāsa (muhurī) and the 13th-century Saṅgītaratnākara (madhukarī) describe it as being 28 Hindu inches (perhaps 21 English inches, about 53 cm) long, made of wood or horn (which probably means all of wood, or with a horn bell), and similar in shape to the ...

Article

Mode  

Harold S. Powers, Frans Wiering, James Porter, James Cowdery, Richard Widdess, Ruth Davis, Marc Perlman, Stephen Jones and Allan Marett

A term in Western music theory with three main applications, all connected with the above meanings of modus: the relationship between the note values longa and brevis in late medieval notation; interval, in early medieval theory; and, most significantly, a concept involving scale type and melody type. The term ‘mode’ has always been used to designate classes of melodies, and since the 20th century to designate certain kinds of norm or model for composition or improvisation as well. Certain phenomena in folksong and in non-Western music are related to this last meaning, and are discussed below in §§IV and V. The word is also used in acoustical parlance to denote a particular pattern of vibrations in which a system can oscillate in a stable way; ...