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A term used in the 16th century (e.g. Ornithoparchus, Musicae activae micrologus, 1517) for the simple forms of plainchant based on recitation tones as used in the Epistle, Gospel, prayers etc.; for a general survey of such forms see Inflection. Accentus forms are contrasted with ...

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Margaret Murata

(b Cupramontana, Jan 11, 1596; d Rome, Oct 16, 1653). Italian librettist. After studying at the Collegio Romano he was active in Roman literary circles from the 1620s. He was secretary to Francesco Peretti (later Cardinal Montalto) by 1630 and to Camillo Pamphili (...

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Leigh H. Edwards

(b Kingsland, AR, Feb 26, 1932; d Nashville, TN, Sept 12, 2003). American country singer and songwriter. A dominant force in country music during his almost 50-year career, Johnny Cash recorded more than 1500 songs, often about southern rural and working-class life. Singing in his distinctive bass-baritone voice, Cash also tapped into gospel, folk, rockabilly, rock, blues, and bluegrass. He sold more than fifty million albums, won more than a dozen Grammys, had 14 number-one country hits, and enjoyed the rare distinction of being inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Country Music Hall of Fame, and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. He is most famous for his “Man in Black” persona, which he created as a voice for the impoverished and disenfranchised on his song and album of the same name (Columbia, ...

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Barry Kernfeld

(b New York, Aug 23, 1928; d New York, Feb 15, 2004). American pianist . In the early 1950s he performed and made recordings with Miles Davis (including Yesterdays/How Deep is the Ocean, 1952, BN 1597) and Lester Young, and in 1957 he played on the album ...

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Colin Timms

(b Genoa, ?1581; d after in or 1656). Italian composer . He spent his working life at Genoa, where he appears to have been organist of the cathedral in the late 16th century and at the convent of S Brigida from 1601. According to the title-page of his ...

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Barbara Russano Hanning

Opera in a prologue and six scenes by Jacopo Peri, with assistance from Jacopo Corsi, to a libretto by Ottavio Rinuccini after Ovid’s Metamorphoses (book 1); Florence, Corsi’s palace, pre-Lenten Carnival season, 1598 (1597 old Florentine style), 1599, 1600.

This experimental musico-dramatic work, for which the music survives only partially in manuscript, and which its creators called a ...

Article

(fl Russia, mid-16th century). Russian bell and cannon founder. Of unknown origin, Ganusov might have come from Germany or the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Moscow, where in the mid-16th century he worked at the court of Ivan the Terrible. A very large bell cast at the Moscow cannon foundry in ...

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Ernest H. Sanders, Peter M. Lefferts, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

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Leeman L. Perkins and Patrick Macey

In 

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Ernest H. Sanders, Peter M. Lefferts, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

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Article

Herbert Heyde

This article discusses trends in organizing the production of European instruments from the 15th century to the mid-19th.

During the 15th century European instrument making entered a new phase with the rise of polyphonic instrumental music. Previously, folk and minstrel instruments had been made mostly by the players themselves. The intricacies of polyphonic music and the social context in which sophisticated instruments such as clavichords, trombones, lutes, and viols were played demanded craft refinement and specialization. The professional traditions of organ building and bell founding provided precedents upon which the new branches of trade could build. While the production of folk instruments continued as it had previously, the new, commercial approach to instrument making gradually evolved into two major forms, which were first observable in the processes of both bell founding and organ building. These forms were small craft-workshops and entrepreneurial businesses. These two forms sometimes intersected; small workshops would sometimes grow and develop into entrepreneurial businesses....

Article

Malcolm Boyd

In 

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(b Madrid, Nov 25, 1562; d Madrid, Aug 27, 1635). Spanish dramatist, virtual founder of the Spanish theatre and the first Spanish opera librettist. His Selva sin amor, La , performed at court before Philip IV on 18 December 1627, was a one-act ‘pastoral eclogue’, wholly sung to music (now lost) by Filippo Piccinini (a Bolognese musician in the employ of the Spanish royal chapel) and Bernardo Monanni (secretary of the Tuscan embassy in Madrid), staged in spectacular style by Cosimo Lotti. This is the earliest record of a wholly-sung drama in Spain, but Lope seems not to have written other such librettos, nor is there any record of any further such operas before the performance of ...

Article

Margaret Murata

(b Civita Castellana, bap. Nov 8, 1592; d Rome, Jan 21, 1665). Italian composer. He became a Roman citizen in 1614 and by 1619 was both priest and Doctor of Laws; he entered the household of Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini in 1621, though not specifically as a musician. The cardinal’s brother Giovanni Giorgio, prince of Rossano, commissioned Mazzocchi’s only surviving opera, ...

Article

Lewis Lockwood, Noel O’Regan and Jessie Ann Owens

(b probably at Palestrina, almost certainly between Feb 3, 1525 and Feb 2, 1526; d Rome, Feb 2, 1594). Italian composer. He ranks with Lassus and Byrd as one of the towering figures in the music of the late 16th century. He was primarily a prolific composer of masses and motets but was also an important madrigalist. Among the native Italian musicians of the 16th century who sought to assimilate the richly developed polyphonic techniques of their French and Flemish predecessors, none mastered these techniques more completely or subordinated them more effectively to the requirements of musical cogency. His success in reconciling the functional and aesthetic aims of Catholic church music in the post-Tridentine period earned him an enduring reputation as the ideal Catholic composer, as well as giving his style (or, more precisely, later generations’ selective view of it) an iconic stature as a model of perfect achievement....