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Article

Ballad  

James Porter, Jeremy Barlow, Graham Johnson, Eric Sams and Nicholas Temperley

Term used for a short popular or traditional song that normally frames a narrative element. Scholars of the term’s history and origin take it to signify a relatively concise composition known throughout Europe since the late Middle Ages, spreading later to the New World, notably the Americas: it combines narrative, dramatic dialogue and lyrical passages in strophic form sung to a rounded tune, and often includes a recurrent refrain. Performance is predominantly by solo singers, though choral and dance elements are known in some cultures. Originally the word referred to dance-songs such as the French ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

A type of English operatic comedy that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The term was one of several used for Italian comic operas of the light intermezzo variety: for instance Pergolesi’s La serva padrona was so described at its first London performance in ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b Kensington, London, Nov 20, 1766; d Bristol, May 15, 1821). English composer and theorist. Entering music as a largely self-taught amateur, he became a popular glee composer and a respected authority on music theory.

He was the son of a builder, Thomas Callcott, by his second wife, Charlotte Wall, and was educated at a private school by William Young; he was a brilliant student of classics, Hebrew and philosophy. Until he was 13 it was planned that he should become a surgeon, but he was so disgusted by witnessing an operation that he gave up this idea. He had learnt something of music from Henry Whitney, organist of Kensington parish church, and he began to practise the organ seriously while continuing to pursue, untaught, the study of languages and mathematics. He also learnt to play the clarinet and the oboe, and began to compose. In ...

Article

Miloš Velimirović, Ruth Steiner, Keith Falconer and Nicholas Temperley

A designation for hymns in the scriptures apart from the psalms; it is sometimes applied loosely to the Te Deum and other non-scriptural texts as well as to certain psalms, particularly in the Anglican rite.

Canticles are similar to psalms in form and content and several appear in various Christian rites. Biblical canticles are often referred to as ‘Psalms outside the Psalter’. In the Old Testament there are a number of such hymns, a few of which were used by the Jews both in the Temple and in the Synagogue rites. The most prominent were the Song of Moses (...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b Gloucester, Dec 13, 1770; d Holmer, nr Hereford, Feb 22, 1836). English organist and composer. He was the son of John Clarke of Malmesbury, Wiltshire (d. 1802) and Amphillis Whitfeld (d. 1813). He studied music at Oxford (against his family's wishes) under Philip Hayes. He was organist at Ludlow parish church, ...

Article

Ian Bradley

English comic-opera collaborators. The impact of the comic operas of the librettist W.S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and the composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900) in the United States was immediate and lasting. H.M.S. Pinafore, the team’s second significant collaboration, established its transatlantic reputation. In the absence of international copyright agreements, a pirate production opened in Boston on ...

Article

Meredith Eliassen

The music and songs of the (California) Gold Rush in San Francisco reflected the sorrows and hard luck of residents who failed to find fortunes in California’s gold fields and faced mortality far from loved ones. The newspaper Alta California observed in 1851, “Birds of a feather flock together,” describing San Francisco as a miniature world where music reflected nearly “every country on the face of the earth.” A few short blocks from the Latin Quarter lay the heart of Chinatown. Streets reverberated with the bustling rhythms of landfill machinery used to reshape the geography of San Francisco’s waterfront and the transient movement of boardinghouse dwellers dodging firestorms, shanghaiers, and outbreaks of cholera....

Article

(b 1815; d 1907). American Moravian composer. See Moravians, music of the, §3.

Article

(b Orwigsburg, PA, May 7, 1839; d Chicago, 1929). American writer and composer of gospel hymns. He was the author of the Salvation Army hymn Are You Washed in the Blood of the Lamb? See Gospel music, §I, 1, (ii).

Article

Hymn  

Warren Anderson, Thomas J. Mathiesen, Susan Boynton, Tom R. Ward, John Caldwell, Nicholas Temperley and Harry Eskew

A term of unknown origin but first used in ancient Greece and Rome to designate a poem in honour of a god. In the early Christian period the word was often, though not always, used to refer to praises sung to God, as distinct from ‘psalm’. The Western and Eastern (Byzantine) Churches developed widely differing hymn traditions. This articles discusses the ancient Greek hymn, and the Western Christian repertory (Catholic and Protestant). For the Byzantine hymn and its various genres ...

Article

Jan Larue and Eugene K. Wolf

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Article

Nicholas Temperley, Howard Slenk, Jan R. Luth, Margaret Munck, John M. Barkley and R. Tosh

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Article

Mark Evan Bonds

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Article

Nicholas Temperley, Howard Slenk, Jan R. Luth, Margaret Munck, John M. Barkley and R. Tosh

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Article

Jan Larue, Eugene K. Wolf, Mark Evan Bonds, Stephen Walsh and Charles Wilson

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Article

Nicholas Temperley, Howard Slenk, Jan R. Luth, Margaret Munck, John M. Barkley and R. Tosh

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Article

Nicholas Temperley, Howard Slenk, Jan R. Luth, Margaret Munck, John M. Barkley and R. Tosh

In 

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Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b Masham, Yorks., Jan 9, 1815; d Bradford, April 15, 1866). English composer . He was known as ‘Jackson of Masham’ to distinguish him from William Jackson ‘of Exeter’ (1730–1803). He was the son of a miller, John Jackson, and left school at 13 to work in the mill and bakery. In his free time he taught himself first to repair, and then to construct, organs; he also learnt how to play various instruments, and the elements of thoroughbass, using tutors and scores from the public library. In ...

Article

(b 1823; d 1901). American composer. See Moravians, music of the, §3.

Article

(b Philadelphia, March 12, 1826; d Plainfield, NJ, Nov 25, 1899). American composer and compiler of Sunday school songs. See Gospel music, §I.