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Article

Clive Brown

The normal German equivalent of the Italian verb staccare (‘to separate or detach; to play staccato’); the noun Stoss was used to mean staccato. Like its Italian counterpart it implies not only separation but also, in many cases, accent. Stoss means literally a blow or shove and the verb means to push, shove or jab. The prefix ...

Article

James Tyler

A tuning indication (im Abzug) found in 16th-century German lute tablatures. It directs the player to lower the pitch of the lute’s sixth course by one whole tone from its normal tuning. (See Cordes avallées and Scordatura, §4.)

Article

Robert E. Seletsky

A ‘crushed note’. C.P.E. Bach (1753) and F.W. Marpurg (1755), who provided the German translation Zusammenschlag, defined the acciaccatura as a non-harmonic note played a tone or semitone below any of the main notes in arpeggiated chords, and immediately released. In 18th-century German sources such as C.P.E. Bach's treatise, it was frequently indicated with an upward diagonal stroke through the stem between the harmonic members of the chord. In melodic usage, the same writers classed the unprepared, simultaneously struck dissonant 2nd followed by the release of the lower note as a form of mordent. The Italian theorists Francesco Gasparini (...

Article

Amoroso  

David Fallows

A performance direction found throughout the 18th century. Rousseau (1768) equated it with the French tendrement, with the qualification that amoroso had ‘plus d'accent, et respire je ne sais pas quoi de moins fade et de plus passionné’ (‘more emphasis and is perhaps a little less insipid and more impassioned’). Other forms encountered include ...

Article

A direction for expressive playing found particularly in German music of the generations after Beethoven. Brahms marked the opening of his German Requiemziemlich langsam und mit Ausdruck’ (‘quite slow and with expression’).

See also Tempo and expression marks.

Article

Bewegt  

David Fallows

A tempo mark sometimes used in the same sense as the Italian Agitato but also having further shades of meaning. For although etwas bewegt means ‘somewhat agitated’, Wagner gave the extremely steady Bridal Chorus in Lohengrin the tempo mark mässig bewegt, meaning simply ‘at a moderate speed’, and the exaggeratedly formal opening to ...

Article

A variant term for Pommer.

Article

A German term for a notational abbreviation in music; it occurs where two alternating notes (or chords) are to be repeated several times (see Periodicals, , ex.2).

Article

Bruce Haynes

A general pitch standard in Germany. Although in modern usage ‘Kammerton’ implies a pitch of a′ = 440, the frequency of Cammerton has varied throughout history. Calling it ‘CammerThon’, Praetorius (Syntagma musicum, ii, 1618) used it as his reference pitch (‘rechte Thon’). In that period the Cammerton standard was about ...

Article

A performance instruction permitting a free and rhapsodic approach to tempo and even style. Liszt used the phrase specifically to designate the metrical irregularity with which he attempted to reproduce folk music in his Hungarian rhapsodies (lento a capriccio).

See also Tempo and expression marks...

Article

Cédez  

A direction used particularly by Debussy and his French contemporaries as an equivalent of the Italian Ritenuto.

See also Tempo and expression marks.

Article

Cheute  

A term used in French Baroque music for an appoggiatura or note of anticipation; it is also found in keyboard music for a passing note or acciaccatura used as an ornament in an arpeggiated chord. See Ornaments, §7.

Article

Con  

A preposition often used in musical contexts for which Italian is the lingua franca (e.g. Brio; sordino, see Mute). It contracts with the definite article as col, colla, coi, cogli and colle.

See also Tempo and expression marks.

Article

The Fingering of keyboard music with figures 1 to 5 for each hand, 1 standing for the thumb, a system in general use throughout the world today. The term was used in Britain in the 19th century in contrast to so-called English fingering (not, however, exclusively English), which provided for four fingers (marked 1 to 4) and a thumb (marked +)....

Article

David Hiley

A Western system of notation used in the 9th and 10th centuries. It was based on a set of signs deriving from the daseia of ancient Greek prosody, a symbol that indicated the rough breathing (‘h’ at the start of a word) and was originally written as, and later as a round sign '. The signs of dasian notation (the full set contains 18) are used in a group of treatises of the late 9th and 10th centuries, principally the ...

Article

Eilend  

David Fallows

An indication found, like mit Eile (‘with haste’), particularly in German scores around 1900. H.C. Koch (Musikalisches Lexikon, 1802) gave eilend as a direct translation for Periodicals, .

For bibliography see Tempo and expression marks.

Article

The Fingering of keyboard music with figures 1 to 4 representing four fingers, and + the thumb, of each hand, a system used in England and elsewhere in the 19th century and now obsolete. The term contrasted with Continental fingering, which provides the figures 1 to 5 for each hand, 1 standing for the thumb, a system in general use throughout the world today....

Article

A traditional solmization system. See Fasola.

Article

Fa  

The fourth degree of the Guidonian Hexachord; see also Solmization, §I. In French, Italian and Spanish, the note F; see Pitch nomenclature.

Article

An expression mark that aptly reflected the mood of much German music in the later 19th century. Siegfried's Funeral March in Götterdämmerung is so marked, as are many slow movements, such as those in Bruckner's Second Symphony (feierlich, etwas bewegt) and his Sixth (...