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Miloš Velimirović

Semi-autonomous monastic ‘republic’ comprising numerous Greek and other Christian monastic communities. It is located on a peninsula of the same name, east of Thessaloniki in northern Greece; the peninsula is also known as the ‘Holy Mountain’ (Hagion oros) or the ‘Garden of the All-Holy Virgin’. Since the Middle Ages, and especially since the fall of Constantinople in ...

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A variant tradition of Serbian chant. See Russian and Slavonic church music, §6.

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Ancient Russian percussion plaque or disc, suspended from a tree. It was used for signalling in the monasteries of the Raskolniks (dissenters) up to the end of the 19th century.

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Camillo Schoenbaum and Clytus Gottwald

A Czech religious sect which originated in Bohemia around 1450. Based on the doctrine of Petr Chelčický (c1390 –1460), a radical Taborite and eminent writer, the Bohemian Brethren initially represented an extreme type of the official Utraquism and as such were at first tolerated. Their basic beliefs included Chelčický's thesis concerning the equality of all mankind, and the primacy of the Bible in every argument and in the moral life of mankind (for whom the exercise of any form of power was sinful). Thus they did not recognize class distinctions and were consequently regarded by their contemporaries as enemies of the existing class-bound society. From ...

Article

Jan Stęszewski and Zbigniew J. Przerembski

Friction drum used in the Pomerania and Warmia regions of Poland. Formerly it was used in magic and annual folk rituals, mainly during Christmas and Shrovetide. Nowadays many folk ensembles use it to provide a rhythmic bass, and as a musical attribute of Kashubian cultural identity. The barrel-shaped body is about 25–30 cm tall and made of wooden staves, or sometimes a hollowed log. The bottom of the barrel is made of leather or wood with a centrally attached strand of horsehair or a metal chain that is rubbed rhythmically with wetted or rosined hands. A smaller version called the ...

Article

Cantor  

Joseph Dyer

In antiquity and the Middle Ages ‘cantor’ (also psalmista) was the generic term for a singer of sacred or secular music (Greek, psaltēs; Slavonic, pievets). Unlike lectors, cantors were not normally listed among the lower clerical orders that might lead to diaconal or priestly ordination. Nevertheless, Isidore of Seville (...

Article

Wolfgang Freis

The practice of plainchant embellishment used at Toledo Cathedral in Spain between the 15th and 19th centuries. Traditionally attributed to St Eugenius (d 657), Archbishop of Toledo, cantus eugenianus was performed with the versicles and responsories of the Office, and the gradual and antiphons of the Mass on ferias, as well as during the Christmas Eve liturgies of the Songs of the Sibyl and the Shepherds. A prebend for a ...

Article

Caput  

Andrew Kirkman

The melisma on the final word, ‘caput’, of the antiphon Venit ad Petrum (ex.1), found in the Maundy Thursday ritual of the Washing of the Feet (the mandatum ceremony) in the English Use of Salisbury and other liturgical uses (Bukofzer, 1950) and used as a cantus firmus in three surviving masses and a Marian motet. The earliest work based on the melisma, a four-voice mass ascribed in the Trent codices to Du Fay, has been shown to be a misattributed work by an anonymous English composer. This mass was clearly one of the most revered compositions of the 15th century. It has survived in no fewer than seven manuscripts, more sources than any other mass cycle written before the 1480s. It may also have been the most influential English mass from a time when insular cycles were providing a model for cyclic mass composition across Europe. Its four-voice texture, using a low contratenor and long-note tenor cantus firmus, with the structural melody stated twice in each movement in so-called double-cursus format, is found also in a large number of similarly constructed masses composed on the Continent beginning in the late 1440s (Wegman, ...

Article

Carol  

John Stevens and Dennis Libby

During the Middle Ages, an English or Latin song of uniform stanzas beginning with a refrain called a ‘burden’ that is repeated after each stanza. Medieval carols could be on any subject, but were mostly about the Virgin or the Saints of Christmas. In recent centuries the word has usually referred to strophic songs (some with refrains) associated with Christmas, many of them with texts derived from medieval English carols....

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Bert F. Polman and John D. Witvliet

One of several small denominations in North America with origins in the Dutch Reformed (Calvinist) tradition, each of which initially inherited Genevan psalmody as their only form of music in worship. The denomination was formed in 1857 by immigrants from the Netherlands who had seceded from the Reformed Church of the Netherlands over various theological issues. Initially isolating themselves from American culture, these settlers sang exclusively Dutch psalms using a ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b Gloucester, Dec 13, 1770; d Holmer, nr Hereford, Feb 22, 1836). English organist and composer. He was the son of John Clarke of Malmesbury, Wiltshire (d. 1802) and Amphillis Whitfeld (d. 1813). He studied music at Oxford (against his family's wishes) under Philip Hayes. He was organist at Ludlow parish church, ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

The two halves of the choir (in an architectural sense) in an English cathedral or a large church or chapel: decani is the south side, cantoris the north. The names mean ‘dean’s [side]’, ‘cantor’s [side]’, and refer to the two highest officials of the chapter of a medieval cathedral. The ...

Article

Kenneth Levy and Christian Troelsgård

The Eucharist in the Eastern Christian rites, corresponding to the Mass of the Roman rite. In the strict sense the term ‘liturgy’ is confined to the anaphora, or consecration prayers, followed by the communion and dismissal rites. The Greek rite, unlike the Roman, has three liturgies in normal use; other Eastern rites, especially the Syriac, use dozens of early anaphoras. Of the three Byzantine liturgies, two are regularly used and contain anaphoral prayers attributed to St Basil and St John Chrysostom respectively; the St Basil liturgy was predominant until about ...

Article

Margaret Cayward

(b Castellón de Ampurias [now Empúries], Catalonia, Spain, Dec 16, 1776; d Santa Barbara, CA, June 1, 1846). Spanish musician and Franciscan missionary to Alta California. He entered the Franciscan order in Girona in 1792 and was ordained a priest in Barcelona in ...

Article

Carol A. Doran

Following the Revolutionary War, the Protestant Episcopal Church was established by English clergy and lay people living in the newly independent United States. From its earliest days, the wealth and beauty of English psalmody and cathedral music have been foundational to the liturgical tradition of the Episcopal Church. The mid-20th century brought an enrichment of that tradition through the addition of music adapted from cultures and practices of the worldwide Anglican Communion, of which the Episcopal Church is a member....

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Spanish monastery near Madrid.

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The term refers to a Protestant Christian movement that began in Great Britain in the early 18th century and subsequently spread throughout the United States via a series of revivalist Great Awakenings. It also refers to the belief in a certain set of Protestant tenets as well as evangelical efforts involving religious activism and conversion of new members....

Article

Jonas Westover

(b Kitzingen, Bavaria, Germany, Feb 23, 1905; d Brookline, MA, March 10, 1995). Composer, organist, conductor, and writer on music, of German birth. After attending the State Academy of Music in Munich, Germany (1925–9), he worked as a conductor in both Bielefeld and Würzburg in the early 1930s. Because his Jewish background prevented him from holding a state position under the Nazis, he became enmeshed in Jewish musical life in Frankfurt, where he was a member of the Jüdischer Kulturbund and a musician for the West End Synagogue. He immigrated to the United States in ...

Article

(fl Russia, mid-16th century). Russian bell and cannon founder. Of unknown origin, Ganusov might have come from Germany or the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Moscow, where in the mid-16th century he worked at the court of Ivan the Terrible. A very large bell cast at the Moscow cannon foundry in ...

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The term ‘Glagolitic’ (neo-Lat. glagoliticus, from Croatian glagoljica: ‘the Glagolitic alphabet’; related to Old Church Slavonic glagolŭ, ‘word’) refers to a distinctive alphabet devised for the Slavonic literary language in the 9th century by Constantine (monastic name, Cyril) and Methodius, apostles of the Slavs. By extension it is used to refer to the Catholic (as opposed to Orthodox) Mass translated into Church Slavonic, and to compositions such as the Glagolitic Mass of Leoš Janáček that are settings of such texts, whether written in the original alphabet or transcribed into Latin letters. ‘Glagolitic chant’ or ‘Glagolitic singing’ (...