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Article

James W. McKinnon and Christian Thodberg

Chant of the Mass in the Western Church and of the Divine Liturgy in the Eastern Church.

The alleluia of the Mass is a Proper chant sung during the Fore-Mass after the gradual (see Gradual) except on liturgical occasions associated with penitence and fasting (most notably during Lent), and on ones associated with sorrow (such as the Requiem Mass), when it may be replaced by the ...

Article

Dimitri Conomos

The urban or ‘cathedral’ Office of the Byzantine rite, performed at the Great Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. In its complete form it is preserved in liturgical manuscripts copied between the 8th and the 12th centuries. The asmatikē akolouthia originally differed from the monastic Office celebrated in Palestine: the cathedral rite used music in the performance of its fixed psalms (psalms appropriate to the hour of the day) as well as responsorial chants and sung refrains; in monasteries, however, there was little or no singing, merely the verse by verse recitation of the complete Psalter throughout each week. (...

Article

David W. Music

Baptists are an evangelical Christian denomination whose name is derived from the distinctive doctrine of believers' baptism, usually administered by means of total immersion. Traditional Baptist beliefs also include the authority of the Bible, the soul-competency of the individual believer, a symbolic interpretation of the Lord's Supper, and the autonomy of the local church (although churches have often joined together in voluntary associations and conventions). In most other doctrines Baptists are similar to other mainstream evangelical groups. From modest beginnings in the 17th century Baptists have grown into one of the world's largest evangelical Christian denominations; in ...

Article

John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

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Article

Wolfgang Freis

The practice of plainchant embellishment used at Toledo Cathedral in Spain between the 15th and 19th centuries. Traditionally attributed to St Eugenius (d 657), Archbishop of Toledo, cantus eugenianus was performed with the versicles and responsories of the Office, and the gradual and antiphons of the Mass on ferias, as well as during the Christmas Eve liturgies of the Songs of the Sibyl and the Shepherds. A prebend for a ...

Article

Geoffrey Chew and James W. McKinnon

Composition by the synthesis of pre-existing musical units. The term is modern, borrowed from poetry by Ferretti in 1934, and has been applied mainly to Gregorian and other chant. Some later studies have sought to expose weaknesses in the concept it represents.

Since the 19th century scholars have recognized the role played in some music by traditional aptness rather than originality; the notion of centonization has gradually grown out of this recognition. Gevaert (...

Article

John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

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Article

John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

In 

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Article

John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

In 

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Article

Dimitri Conomos

The offertory chant in the Byzantine Divine Liturgy. Introduced into the liturgy in the 6th century by the Emperor Justin II, it is sung at the beginning of the Liturgy of the Faithful (after the Dismissal of the Catechumens) and accompanies the Great Entrance when the Holy Gifts are transferred in procession from the ...

Article

Chants sung on certain feasts at Mass in the Mozarabic rite; see Mozarabic chant, §4, (vi).

Article

Michel Huglo and Manuel Pedro Ferreira

In the Western Christian Church, an order of monks in a congregation affiliated to the abbey of Cluny in Burgundy. An offshoot of the Benedictines, this order was distinguished in the Middle Ages for the care it lavished on the performance of the liturgy.

Cluny was founded by William III, Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Auvergne, as a house of 12 monks directly under the protection of the pope; William placed it under the authority of Berno, abbot of Gigny and Baume, on 2 September 909. From this time until the mid-12th century, daughter Cluniac foundations were established, first in Burgundy and Auvergne, then in northern France and England, and finally in northern Italy and the Holy Roman Empire (see maps 47 and 48 in J. Martin: ...

Article

Ruth Steiner and Keith Falconer

One of the services of the Divine Office. Traditionally performed at the end of the day, Compline seems to have originated as a form of prayer before going to bed; this was once the purpose of Vespers, with which it shares common theological themes, but Compline was never as variable or as imposing as its earlier counterpart. Basil the Great (...

Article

Credo  

Richard L. Crocker and David Hiley

Affirmation of Christian belief, sung as part of the Latin Mass between the Gospel and the Offertory. Three Latin Creeds have come down to us (‘Apostles'’, ‘Nicene’, ‘Athanasian’), but the history of the texts is complex; the one used at Mass is that usually called ‘Nicene’....

Article

A synonym for Sistrum. See also Cybele.

Article

John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

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Article

Kenneth Levy and Christian Troelsgård

The Eucharist in the Eastern Christian rites, corresponding to the Mass of the Roman rite. In the strict sense the term ‘liturgy’ is confined to the anaphora, or consecration prayers, followed by the communion and dismissal rites. The Greek rite, unlike the Roman, has three liturgies in normal use; other Eastern rites, especially the Syriac, use dozens of early anaphoras. Of the three Byzantine liturgies, two are regularly used and contain anaphoral prayers attributed to St Basil and St John Chrysostom respectively; the St Basil liturgy was predominant until about ...

Article

Ruth Steiner and Keith Falconer

A series of worship services performed in the course of each day and night in the Roman Catholic Church. After discussion of the Office’s early origins, this article describes the Divine Office as it is presented in manuscripts of the Middle Ages; for information on its structure and content after the reform of the breviary called for by the Council of Trent and completed in ...

Article

In a Byzantine choir, the precentor who intoned the Ēchēma.

Article

Mary Berry

The Order of Friars Preachers, or Dominicans, also known in England as Blackfriars from the colour of their cloaks, was founded by St Dominic in the first decade of the 13th century. The founder’s original purpose was to form a group of itinerant preachers to combat the heresy of the Albigenses in the south of France. From a loosely associated handful of men was to grow one of the foremost centrally organized orders of the modern world. Approved by Foulques of Toulouse, then by Innocent III, and confirmed by Honorius III, the new Order of Preachers adopted the Rule of St Augustine together with a set of Constitutions proper to itself. Recognized at first as an order of canons regular, the Dominicans later became one of the first Mendicant Orders. As an international preaching body they laid claim to extensive privileges, including exemption from episcopal jurisdiction....