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Article

Term used by the Navajo people of the southwestern USA for a whistle.

Article

J. Richard Haefer

End-blown flute of the Flathead Indians of Montana, USA. Often called a courting flute, it is made from elderberry or fir and is about 45 cm long and 2 cm in diameter. The soft elderberry pith is burnt out with a heated metal rod and six ...

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Chad Stephen Hamill

End-blown flute of the Native Americans of the Columbia Plateau. It is called č ɫx̣ ʷálq ʷ by the Interior Salish and sepú ‧nme ʔs mít ʼip by the Sahaptin. A heated metal rod is used to push the pith out of a straight section of elderberry stalk 38 to 60 cm long and about 2.5 cm in diameter, and to burn fingerholes (typically six) into the stalk; often an additional non-fingered hole is made near the bottom. A V-shaped slot is cut near the proximal end and partially filled with pine pitch to deflect the air; the slot is covered with a rawhide block to direct the wind over the pitch and against the lower end of the V. Historically it was used by men to court women; nowadays it is more commonly used for personal enjoyment....

Article

Nguyen Thuyet Phong

Mouth organ of the Êđê people of Vietnam. It has six bamboo free-reed pipes attached with wax through the gourd windchest in two groups of three, with the neck of the gourd serving as the mouthpipe. There is one fingerhole on each pipe, stopped with the thumb, index, and middle fingers of both hands....

Article

Patricia Matusky

Free-reed mouth organ of the Iban community of Sarawak, Malaysia. It has seven bamboo pipes (the center pipe is mute) bundled in a circular formation and sealed with beeswax where they penetrate vertically into a gourd wind chamber 24 to 28 cm in diameter. The gourd encloses the brass reeds located near the bottom end of each pipe. The stem of the gourd serves as the mouthpiece, and the player can blow or suck to cause the reeds to vibrate. A reed sounds when a fingerhole in its pipe above the gourd is closed. Often a small cup-like resonator (...

Article

Hnyìn  

John Okell

Small mouth organ of Burma. It consists of bamboo pipes (their number varies) with free reeds, mounted in a long-necked gourd or pottery windchest; the neck serves as the blowpipe. A typical example has ten curved pipes in two rows of five, ranging from about 13 to 56 cm exposed length, affixed to the gourd with a dense paste. Holes near the lower ends of the pipes are opened or closed by the fingers to sound the pipes. The ...

Article

John M. Schechter and J. Richard Haefer

In modern Nahutl, a generic term for an Aztec flute. Traditionally it was a ceramic globular vessel flute. Stanford equates it with the flute çoçoloctli. Clay huilacapitztli have been found up to 20 cm in diameter and with five to eight tone holes. More developed examples are found throughout Central America. It was played together with the ...

Article

Alan R. Thrasher

Mouth organ of minority cultures of southwest China, notably the Yi, Lahu, and Lisu in Yunnan province. Hulu sheng (‘gourd mouth organ’) is a Han Chinese name. Local names include ang (Yi), nuo or naw (Lahu), and maniu (Lisu). The instrument is constructed from a dried bottle gourd (...

Article

Hulusi  

Alan R. Thrasher

Mouth organ of the Dai, Achang, Wa, and other minority cultures in southern Yunnan province, China. Hulusi is a Han Chinese name; local names include bilangdao (Dai), huluxiao (Achang), and baihongliao (Wa). The instrument has a bamboo melody pipe and one or two bamboo drone pipes inserted into the bottom (flower) end of a small bottleneck gourd windchest. Traditionally the pipes are secured with hardened beeswax though nowadays usually with a stronger adhesive. A thin blowpipe is similarly mounted in the neck end of the gourd. The melody pipe (...

Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

Vertical whistle of the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Confederation people of north-eastern North America. It is made of cane, about 45 cm long with an external duct, like the courting flute, but no fingerholes. Only two notes are produced, the fundamental and its overblown octave. It is used only during the ceremony of the Little Water Medicine Society and in the Eagle Dance, a curing ritual....

Article

Keledi  

Virginia Gorlinski

Gourd and bamboo mouth organ. The term is used primarily by Kayan and Bahau peoples of Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo, although similar instruments have been played by many Borneo peoples, including the Iban, Kanowit, Dusun/Kadazan, Murut, Sebop, Kenyah and Punan (see Indonesia, §VII, 1, (ii)...

Article

Leli  

Richard Keeling

Bone whistle of the Maidu and other native peoples of northern California. It is made from the leg bone of a large bird, a deer or other animal, or local cane. The whistles, from 12 to 20 cm long and 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter (the larger of cane), are usually played in pairs, hence the Kato name ...

Article

John M. Schechter and J. Richard Haefer

Notched flute, a large kena, of the Bolivian Alti Plano, also found in Tarapacá Province, Chile. Called pheta by the Chipaya people, it is made from tokoró, a local cane, with six fingerholes and a thumbhole. The instruments are played in groups to accompany dancing, particularly at the feast of Santiago (July 25) among the Chipaya of the Department of Oruro. The ...

Article

Klisala Harrison

Terms for whistles and reed instruments of First Nations peoples of the North American Pacific Northwest, including the Kwakwa̲ka̲’wakw (ma̲dzis), Haida (kingáan), Nuuchahnulth, Tlingit, Tsimshian (hat’awt’isk), and Coast Salish. The instruments appear with and without fingerholes and can be blown by mouth or mechanically. The mouth-blown whistles appear in three forms: stopped pipes, half-stopped pipes, and open pipes. Some older literature and museum catalogues use the term ...

Article

Paula Conlon

(b Fletcher, OK, July 3, 1932; d Lawton, OK, March 5, 1996). Native American (Comanche) maker and player of juniper flutes. He attended the Fort Sill Indian School and Haskell Indian Institute. He learned flute making from the Kiowa maker Belo Cozad (...

Article

Niçude  

Mary Riemer-Weller

Bone whistle of the Omaha Indians of the central Plains of the USA. It is made from the wing bone of an eagle and is about 15 cm long, and it has a V-shaped flue opening in the centre but no fingerholes. It produces only one shrill note which, when played repeatedly, was said to imitate an eagle’s call. The whistle was played during parts of the ...

Article

Chad Stephen Hamill

Whistle of the Salish Indians of the Columbia Plateau. 10 to 15 cm long, it can be made from various hollow dry creek weeds, cow parsnip stalk, willow or elder wood, the ulna bone of a bald eagle, or the leg or wing bone of a crane or similar wading bird. The proximal end is cut at a 45-degree angle to rest against the lower lip of the player. A wedge-shaped hole is cut on the side opposite the angled cut and partially filled with pine pitch to direct the air to the lower edge of the cut. It produces a single sound. Whistles are used by young boys and men for personal enjoyment. The term ...

Article

Richard Moyle

Nose flute of Hawaii. It is a tube of thin-walled native Hawaiian bamboo, traditionally between 25 and 50 cm long, with a nose hole cut at an angle below the upper end, closed by a node. Two or three fingerholes penetrate the tube towards the open end. The traditional way of playing the flute was to hold it with the right thumb and forefinger and use the rest of the fingers of the same hand to cover the holes. The left thumb was used to hold the left nostril closed with the left hand cupped over or under the flute. Like the ...

Article

Phloy  

Trân Quang Hai and Terry E. Miller

Free-reed mouth organ of minority upland peoples in Cambodia. It has five or six bamboo pipes with free reeds, mounted in a circle, the lower ends (including the reeds) inserted into a gourd windchest. A similar instrument is called khim by the Samrê people and ...

Article

J. Richard Haefer

Generic term for Anglo instruments used by the Tohono O’odham (Papago) Indians of Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico. Piastakuḍ (‘fiesta thing’) refers to those instruments used to perform waila (social dance music; from the Spanish bailar, called ‘chicken scratch’ by Anglos) and pascola dance tunes. They include the ...