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Anne Beetem Acker

Term related to music made by the eight-bit soundchips in 1980s and early 1990s gaming systems and microcomputers, as well as music composed using modified (‘modded’) gaming systems or environments designed to emulate the capabilities of early soundchips. (A chip, or microchip, is an integrated circuit packaged in a usually flat rectangular body with input and output pins for attachment to a larger circuit system.) The original systems include the NEC PC-8801, Commodore 64, Nintendo Entertainment Systems, Amiga, Game Boy, and Mega Drive/Genesis. The distinctive sound of music from these systems arises from their use of only a few simple waveforms, white noise, and beeps, as well as unreliable pitches and limited polyphony. Despite these restrictions, inventive chiptune composers in the 1980s emulated many styles of music using flutelike melodies, buzzing square-wave bass lines, rapid arpeggios, and noisy primitive percussion. Game music is designed to loop indefinitely and then quickly switch depending upon the characters or scenes of the game, requiring the music to be simple yet evocative. Composers used software ‘trackers’, tediously entering the note and other information in numerical codes that the hardware chip could use....

Article

Fanfare  

Edward H. Tarr

(1) A flourish of trumpets or other brass instruments, often with percussion, for ceremonial purposes. Fanfares are distinct from military signals in usage and character. In addition to its musical meaning, ‘fanfare’ has always had a figurative meaning. The root, fanfa (‘vaunting’), goes back to late 15th-century Spanish. Although etymologists believe the word to be onomatopoeic, it may in fact be derived from the Arabic ...

Article

Hubert Unverricht and Janet K. Page

A term used for the fanfares, and later other compositions, also known as Feldstücke, ‘needed in the field at warlike happenings’ (Altenburg, 88); alternatively it applied to an ensemble that played such pieces. The term referred originally to the corps of military trumpeters which replaced the drum and fife bands widely used in the Middle Ages....

Article

Carolyn Bryant

Founded in 1972, the organization seeks to facilitate learning about the art, craft, and science of lutherie. It was organized by a group of craftsmen to provide a forum for sharing information about building string instruments, including guitars of all types, mandolins, lutes, violins, and others. In ...

Article

John Caldwell and Christopher Maxim

In 

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John Caldwell, Christopher Maxim, Barbara Owen, Robert Winter, Susan Bradshaw and Martin Elste

In 

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Article

Sarah Deters Richardson

International organization established in 1971, dedicated to double reed players, instrument manufacturers, and enthusiasts. The society aims to enhance the art of double reed playing; encourage the performance of double reed literature; improve instruments, tools, and reed-making material; encourage the composition and arranging of music for double reeds; act as a resource for performers; assist teachers and students of double reed instruments; encourage cooperation and an exchange of ideas between the music industry and the society; and foster a world-wide communication between double reed musicians (IDRS Constitution, ...

Article

Sarah Deters Richardson

International organization dedicated to horn performance, teaching, composition, and research, and the preservation and promotion of the horn as a musical instrument. The society was formed in June 1970 at the Second International Horn Workshop, in Tallahassee, Florida. It began publishing a refereed journal, The Horn Call...

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Article

Michael Pirker

The Turkish ensemble of wind and percussion instruments known in the Ottoman Empire as mehter, introduced into Europe in the 17th century and later imitated there using Western instruments.

The janissaries, the élite troops of the Ottoman Empire, were initially Christian captives recruited to form a new army after their conversion to Islam. The bands of the janissaries were called ...

Article

Barbara Owen

(b Boston, 1708; d Boston, May 8, 1767). American organ builder, music engraver, craftsman and musician. In 1739 he led the singing in the Brattle Street Church, Boston, and was paid for singing in King's Chapel in 1754–6. He was active as an ornamental painter and japanner, and as an engraver of maps, certificates, trade cards, music etc.; he is also regarded as Boston's first professional organ builder. He is recorded as having tuned and repaired some of the imported English organs in Boston, which presumably served as his only textbook in the craft of organ building. In ...

Article

John Caldwell, Christopher Maxim, Barbara Owen, Robert Winter, Susan Bradshaw and Martin Elste

Before the mid-17th century composers made little stylistic distinction between one keyboard instrument and another, and players used whichever happened to be available or was best suited to the occasion. Liturgically based works and those containing either long-sustained notes or pedal parts would be heard most often on the organ, and dances and settings of popular tunes on the harpsichord; nevertheless, much of the repertory could be shared. While a number of high Baroque composers exploited the individual characteristics of the organ, harpsichord or clavichord, it was not until the latter half of the 18th century that a distinctive style for the piano, which had been invented about ...

Article

Peter Downey

Signals intended to transmit information, commands or encouragement to an army during battle or in camp, to a navy during engagement or on voyage, and to royal and noble households at court and on tour, and also employed to embellish ceremonial occasions. Military calls are played on various musical instruments, including trumpets, bugles, flutes, drums and kettledrums, and are usually, but not exclusively, performed monophonically....

Article

Owen Jander

A textless vocal exercise or concert piece to be sung to one or more vowels. The vocalise derives from two traditions. One dates from the early 19th century, when it became customary to perform and publish solfeggi and essercizi with piano accompaniment (e.g. Domenico Corri, ...