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Albania  

Jane Sugarman, George Leotsakos and Zana Shuteriqi Prela

Country in south-east Europe. Under Ottoman rule from 1385, Albanians proclaimed their independence in 1912. This was recognized by international conferences in 1913 and again after World War I. The country was occupied by Italy from April 1939 and during World War II by Germany. In ...

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Country in North Africa. Algeria is the second-largest country in the African continent, with an area of 2,381,741 km² and a population of 31·6 million (2000). Its wide musical diversity reflects its geographic proximity to Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia and Western Sahara, as well as its physical and historical links with Europe. Sunni Islam is the state religion, and a regional form of Arabic is used, although French and Berber are also widely spoken. Most of the country's inhabitants live in the large cities of the ...

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Richard Crawford, Philip V. Bohlman, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Julien Olivier, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Mick Moloney, Marcello Sorce Keller, Stephen Erdely, Şahan Arzruni, Christina Jaremko, Mark Levy, Robert C. Metil, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Mark Forry, Robert B. Klymasz, Portia K. Maultsby, Gerard Béhague, Charlotte Heth, Beverley A. Cavanagh, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Zhang Weihua, Susan M. Asai, Youyoung Kang, George Ruckert, Amy R. Catlin and Ricardo D. Trimillos

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Richard Crawford, Philip V. Bohlman, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Julien Olivier, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Mick Moloney, Marcello Sorce Keller, Stephen Erdely, Şahan Arzruni, Christina Jaremko, Mark Levy, Robert C. Metil, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Mark Forry, Robert B. Klymasz, Portia K. Maultsby, Gerard Béhague, Charlotte Heth, Beverley A. Cavanagh, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Zhang Weihua, Susan M. Asai, Youyoung Kang, George Ruckert, Amy R. Catlin and Ricardo D. Trimillos

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Jean During

Country in the Caucasus of Central Asia of 86,600 km², with an estimated population of 7·83 million (2000). Since 1828 Azerbaijan has consisted of two parts; one forms a province of Iran, whilst the other, which was a Soviet socialist republic from 1920...

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Bahrain  

An independent state, consisting of an archipelago of islands, in the Arabian Gulf.

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Belgium  

European country, independent since 1830. See under Low Countries.

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Ivan Čavlović, Ankica Petrović and Jasmina Talam

Country in south-eastern Europe. Located in the Balkan peninsula, it has an area of 51,209 km2 and a population of 3,791,662 (2013 census, preliminary results). It is believed that a medieval Bosnian state was constituted at the end of the 8th century. In the beginning, the rulers of Bosnia were called ban: the first called by the name ban was Ban Borić and later on, the famous Kulin Ban; and after the coronation of Ban Tvrtko I Kotromanić in ...