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Alaska  

George R. Belden and Philip Munger

US state (pop. 721,231; 2010 US Census). Although Alaska’s population grew rapidly from World War II through the end of the 20th century, this growth slowed subsequently with population declines in the rural interior. State support for cultural organizations and for arts education in schools and universities has not remained consistent. A high percentage of corporate gifts to arts organizations has come from oil companies, and, in the early 21st century, from the financial services industry....

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Bahia  

Brazilian state. See Salvador.

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Bahrain  

An independent state, consisting of an archipelago of islands, in the Arabian Gulf.

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Guam  

Raymond F. Kennedy, Cynthia B. Sajnovsky and Barbara B. Smith

The southernmost of the Marianas Islands and the largest island in Micronesia; its area is 541 sq. km. It became a port of call for the Spanish Manila Galleon, an annual expedition from 1565 to 1815 between the Philippines and Mexico. In 1899, after the end of the Spanish colonial administration, Guam became an American naval base and later a territory of the United States. The population of Guam (180,692 in US Census ...

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Fenella Bazin

Island located in the Irish Sea, off the north-west coast of England.

Manx music has been shaped by the Isle of Man's unique political status and its position at the cultural crossroads of the British Isles. Manx Celts had been Christian for nearly 400 years before the arrival in about 800 ...

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Gerard Béhague

State in north-east Brazil. It had one of the earliest musical establishments in the Portuguese colony. The city of Olinda, founded in the mid-16th century, became during that century the seat of a bishopric, and remained the seat of the diocese until 1833. The first known ...

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Margot Lieth Philipp and Mark Clague

A group of Caribbean islands lying about 50 miles east of Puerto Rico. They consist of the former Danish West Indies (St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix) and about 50 smaller islets, mostly uninhabited; the islands were purchased by the United States in 1917...

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Wales  

Geraint Lewis, Lyn Davies and Phyllis Kinney

A principality in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Wales was a separate country from 613 to 1282, when it came under English rule. It is largely a highland area with a traditionally pastoral economy, although in parts of lowland south Wales agriculture is also important, and investment from outside Wales brought new industries to the principality in the late 20th century. The population includes descendants of various pre-Celtic, Celtic and other stocks, and about a quarter are Welsh-speaking. As a result, the Welsh are actively conscious of their Celtic heritage, and this is reflected in their music and in the late survival of archaic forms and instruments. Despite a long history of traditional music, it was not until the 19th century, when the development of coalfields in north-east and south Wales created dense urban centres, that art music, outside the church, began to develop....