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  • Keith Waters


Term that loosely refers to a body of music that emerged in the late 1950s and 60s that combined principles of bop, hard bop, modal jazz, and free jazz. Much of this music maintained standard bop and hard bop elements, including a “head—solos—head” format and accompanimental textures such as walking bass. But the music also departed from earlier traditions in the following ways: a slower harmonic rhythm characteristic of modal jazz, techniques for playing “inside” and “outside” the underlying harmonic structure, an interactive (or conversational) approach to rhythm section accompaniment, unusual harmonic progressions, use of harmonic or metric superimposition, unusual underlying formal designs for head statements and chorus structure improvisation, or the abandonment entirely of underlying chorus structure beneath improvisation. The recordings of the Ornette Coleman Quartet (...

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