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Joseph S.C. Lam

(b 1536; d 1611). Chinese scholar, mathematician and music theorist . Heir apparent of the sixth prince of Zheng under the Ming dynasty, Zhu Zaiyu probably formulated the first system of equal temperament in world history.

Zhu’s achievement was based on the studies of his father, Zhu Houhuan (...

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Olga Manulkina

(b Aktyubinsk region, Kazakhstan, Dec 2, 1927; d December 13, 1993). Kazakh composer. She was the daughter of the composer and scholar Akhmet Zhubanov, who was the organizer and conductor of the Kazakh Instruments Orchestra. She studied composition with Gnesin and Streicher at the Gnesin Institute, Moscow, and with Shaporin at the Moscow Conservatory, from which she graduated in ...

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Razia Sultanova

(b Fergana Basin, Feb 1, 1956). Uzbek dutār player. From 1970 to 1974 she attended the Fergana College of Art. From 1974 to 1979 she studied the dutār with Fakhriddin Sadyqov at the Tashkent State Conservatory, learning many pieces from the traditional classical repertory including well-known ...

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A Turkish cymbal clamped to a bass drum and activated by a small striker attached to the bass-drum beater; see Drum set, §I, 5.

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John Baily

Single-headed goblet drum of Afghanistan. It is usually made of pottery, and occasionally from a block of mulberry wood, carved or turned in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The single goatskin head, usually slightly narrower than the widest part of the body (which curves in at the top), is glued on and can be tuned by heating or wetting it. Sometimes the head bears a patch of black tuning paste. Some modern instruments have the head lapped on a ring with metal tuning rods. The drummer sits cross-legged on the floor with the drum resting on its side on the ground, or in the player’s lap. Drummers use a large variety of rhythmic patterns and special techniques such as the ...

Article

Ziryāb  

Eckhard Neubauer

(b Iraq; d Córdoba, Spain, Aug 852). Arab musician . A mawlā (‘freedman’) of Caliph al-Mahdī (775–85) at Baghdad, he was a pupil of Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī and a rival of Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī at the court of Hārūn al-Rashīd (786–809). He left Baghdad for Syria, served the Aghlabid ruler Ziyādat Allāh (...

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See Raḥbānī family

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Svetlana Sarkisyan

(b Yerevan, Jan 29, 1945). Armenian composer. He studied composition at the Melikian Music College with Bagdasarian (1963–7) and then at the Yerevan Conservatory with Eghiazarian (1967–72). In 1972 he began to teach harmony at the Babadjanian Music College and in ...

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George Leotsakos

(b Korça, Jan 24, 1929; d Tirana, Nov 9, 1991). Albanian composer and violinist. He studied theory and the violin at the Jordan Misja Art Lyceum, Tirana (1946–c1950) and became leader of the Albanian Philharmonia before studying composition with Shaporin at the Moscow Conservatory (...

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Noël Goodwin

(b Tel-Aviv, July 16, 1948). Israeli violinist of Polish descent. His father, also a violinist, encouraged a childhood instinct for music, and at eight he entered the Tel-Aviv Academy of Music, where he studied with Ilona Feher, a pupil of Hubay. In 1961...

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Zuoqing  

Alan R. Thrasher

Bowl-shaped resting bell of the Han Chinese. The bell is hammered out of bronze and constructed in various sizes, medium-sized instruments ranging from 10 to 15 cm in diameter. The zuoqing rests on a cushion and is struck at the rim with a padded beater. A 9th-century Buddhist bell (24 cm in diameter, 19 cm deep) found in a Tang dynasty site is one of earliest of this type reported. The scholar Chen Yang, in his treatise ...

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Eliyahu Schleifer

(b Tel-Aviv, March 6, 1942). Israeli composer. After graduating from the College of Music Teachers in Tel-Aviv (1964), he studied theory at the Rubin Academy of Music and Dance, Jerusalem (until 1967). He continued his studies in the USA at the Mannes College of Music (BM ...

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Zurnā  

Shawm of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Armenia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Georgia. See Surnāy .