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Don Harrán

(b Cesena, 1515; d Padua, 1611). Italian grammarian, poet and rabbi. He refers to music in his treatise on Hebrew grammar, ‘Arugat ha-bosem’ (‘Bed of spices’), which survives in both a manuscript ( GB-Lbl Add.27011) and a printed source (Venice, 1602). Subjects of special relevance to music include accentuation, metres and poetical forms. Under accentuation, Archivolti describes the biblical accents (...

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Archive founded in Sopot, Poland, in 1981; see Libraries and archives, §2, , .

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Lynda Sayce

A generic term for lutes with fretted courses tuned like the Renaissance lute, and with extended, unfretted bass courses (diapasons). The archlute differs from the Theorbo mainly in that the body is smaller and the first and second courses are at lute pitch rather than an octave lower (this was possible because the string length was shorter). The term ‘arciliuto’ was in use in Italy before ...

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André Barbera

(fl first half of the 4th century bce). Mathematician, music theorist and inventor. A friend of Plato, he may have been taught by Philolaus, the first man known to have publicized Pythagorean discoveries widely. Although no extended writing by Archytas survives, fragments attributed to him are contained or summarized in the works of others. He may have been the first author to establish the subjects of the Quadrivium (geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music). He also expounded a theory of acoustics that associated pitch with the speed of sound as it passed through the air, noting that sounds arriving swiftly and strongly appear high-pitched, whereas those arriving slowly and weakly appear low-pitched (Diels, 47b1)....

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Edwin M. Ripin

A term used by Nicola Vicentino (L’antica musica ridotta alla moderna prattica, 1555) to designate a harpsichord equipped with many divided keys, or even a second manual, in order to permit playing in his reconstructions of the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic genera of the ancient Greeks. Later writers have also applied the term to harpsichords having many divided keys for the simpler purpose of playing in good intonation in remote tonalities. Vicentino also built an ...

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An organ with divided keys. See Arcicembalo .

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Robert Stevenson

(b ?Alcalá de Henares, c1283; d c 1350). Spanish poet and ecclesiastic. His Libro de buen amor (1330, enlarged 1343; ed. J. Corominas, Madrid, 1967/R; Eng. trans., 1970), written during an unjust imprisonment of 13 years, gives him a place in medieval Spanish literature comparable to that of Chaucer in English literature. He mentioned at least 37 instruments in his long poem (6912 lines), often with characterizations: the ...

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Howard Rye

Record label. It was owned by the American Record Corporation and run by Irving Berman. The label continued the policies of Berman’s earlier labels Regis and Manor, but is especially noteworthy for its issue on double-sided 78 r.p.m. discs of recordings of jam sessions that took place at Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts of the mid-1940s. The operation appears to have lasted only for a few months in ...

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Sonya Monosoff

The term refers to the bow used in playing string instruments such as rebecs, fiddles, viols and members of the violin family. As a musical term in Western music ‘arco’ is generally used after the word Pizzicato to indicate to the player that he or she should resume playing with the bow....

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Hugh Davies

Special bow for string instruments developed by Luigi Russolo in Milan in 1925. It consisted of a rod wound spirally with wire to give it a slightly ridged surface. The string was bowed in the normal manner, but the result was two distinct notes from the sections of the string on either side of the bow; when only a single note was required, one section of the string could be damped by a strip of cloth affixed along the length of the bow. Strings did not need to be fingered since different notes could be obtained by changing the position of the bow, but normal fingering could, presumably, be used. For multiple stopping Russolo suggested tuning the top three strings to a major triad with the root doubled an octave lower on the fourth string. Depending on the pressure of the bow, the strings produced sounds ranging from a roughened legato to very rapid note repetitions; the timbres resembled those of two of Russolo’s Intonarumori, the ...

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Charles Timbrell

(b Marseilles, Oct 28, 1920; d Paris, March 5, 1998). French pianist. She studied the piano first in her native city and then with Marguerite Long at the Paris Conservatoire, where she received a premier prix in 1938. She then served as pianist for the Conservatoire's classes in violin, voice and wind instruments for several years, and in ...

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Karl Leich

(b Venice; fl 1685–90). Italian librettist. He lived at Candia (now Iraklion), Crete. He wrote the librettos for Domenico Gabrielli's Il Clearco in Negroponte (1685) and G.A. Perti's La Rosaura (1689) and Brenno in Efeso (1690). The works were performed and printed in Venice. They treat historical subjects in a heroic-comic manner; each, by concealing the true identity of a principal character, arrives at a happy ending. They contain many da capo arias and exit arias. There are sometimes ballets between the acts....

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Anne Beetem Acker

Experimental electronic instrument designed at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile by Claudio Bertin, Gabriel de Ioannes, Alvaro Sylleros, Rodrigo Cádiz, and Patricio de la Cuadra. First described publicly in 2010, it has an interface that responds to the user’s natural gestures, improves the audience observation experience, is easy to master, and allows exploration of tonal and rhythmic possibilities. The novel design methodology centred on formal analysis of video recordings of a focus group discussing characteristics of instruments and performance, as well as of video recordings of individual gestural responses to eight categories of sounds of diverse timbre, pitch, and dynamics. The results were used to describe the characteristics of the instrument being designed and to create mock-ups that led to the Arcontinuo. The instrument’s playing surface resembles a curved board that is placed vertically on the performer’s chest, with straps securing it over the shoulders and a prop resting against the player’s stomach. The board’s flexible magnetic surface measures three-dimensional data from several fingers simultaneously, using an embedded grid of Hall effect sensors. Software interprets the results to produce the sounds....

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Kornel Michałowski

(b Lublin, Dec 31, 1840; d Warsaw, Feb 15, 1916). Polish bookseller and music publisher. He served his apprenticeship in the bookshop of his uncle Stanisław Arct in Warsaw, then at Behr & Bock in Berlin. In 1862 he took over the management of Stanisław Arct’s bookshop, becoming its proprietor in ...

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Joint pseudonym of Ludovic Halévy and Hector-Jonathan Crémieux .

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Robert Stevenson

(b Tafalla, Navarra, bap. Sept 22, 1638; d Toledo, Oct 11, 1706). Spanish composer. He was admitted to Toledo Cathedral as a choirboy on 17 September 1647, where he studied composition with Tomás Micieres. From 1658 to 1674 he was maestro de capilla...

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Jerome Roche

(b c1580; d 1650). Italian composer. All that is known of his life is that he was organist at S Maria della Scala and S Fedele, Milan, and at the ducal court there. He is known to have composed only church music: two published volumes – of motets (...

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Nicholas Williams

Opera in two acts, op.21, by Alexander Goehr to a libretto by Erich Fried (English version by Geoffrey Skelton); Hamburg, Staatsoper, 5 March 1967.

The murder of Arden (bass), a prosperous businessman, is planned by his wife, Alice (mezzo-soprano), and her lover, Mosbie (tenor). Two landowners ruined by Arden, Greene (baritone) and Reede (bass), and two disaffected servants, Susan (soprano) and Michael (tenor), are also involved in the conspiracy. After three bungled attempts, the hired assassins Shakebag (tenor) and Black Will (bass) murder Arden at a reconciliation banquet arranged by him for his so-called friends. In the concluding court scene, Alice and Mosbie admit their guilt, while the others attempt to deny their complicity....

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Lori Burns and Jada Watson

(b Springbank, AB, March 27, 1962). Canadian singer-songwriter. Her songs are characterized by a lyrical emphasis on heartbreak and introspection, set to seamless pop and rock arrangements featuring smooth vocals and catchy rhythmic riffs. She began writing songs at the age of 13 and released her debut single “Never Love a Sailor” as Jann Richards in ...

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Charles Garrett

(b Wenona, IL, March 8, 1893; d New York, NY, July 31, 1962). American Pianist, best known for his work in a duo with phil w. Ohman .