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Roland J. Vázquez

(b Portugal, 1836; d Madrid, May 21, 1886). Spanish impresario, actor and singer. He first became popular in comic roles at theTeatro de la Zarzuela in Madrid. In 1866 he formed his own company, the Bufos Madrileños, modelled on Offenbach’s Bouffes-Parisiens. It was an instant success. By ...

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Walter Pass

(b Cremona, 1550–60; d ?Prague, after1611). Italian composer and instrumentalist, active in Bohemia. From 1582 until 1612 he served at the imperial court at Prague, where there were other instrumentalists with the same surname, of whom the older Alberto Ardesi may have been his father. He published ...

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Italian composer. See under Ardesi, Carlo .

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Gerhard Croll and Ernst Hintermaier

(b c1643; d Munich, 1717). German composer and instrumentalist, ? of French birth. On 9 October 1669 he was employed as a cornettist at the Bavarian electoral court at Munich with an annual salary of 250 florins, increased on 27 October 1670 to 400 florins. In a decree of ...

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Victoria Eli Rodríguez

(b Barcelona, March 13, 1911; d Havana, Jan 9, 1981). Cuban composer and conductor of Spanish origin. He studied the piano, conducting and composition with his father, and when only 12 he composed the Sonatina and Capricho for piano. He graduated from the Instituto Musical de Barcelona in ...

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Ardin  

K.A. Gourlay

Angle harp played by Moorish women of Mauritania. It usually has 11 to 14 strings and a neck more than 100 cm long. The neck is inserted into a hemispherical calabash resonator, about 40 cm in diameter, which is covered with a stretched sheepskin. The strings are attached to a curved wooden rod on the soundtable, into which each end of the rod disappears, and to tuning pegs at the upper end. Circular metal discs with small rings round the edges are fixed on the soundtable. The harp is played with its body in front of the seated player, the neck to the left of the player’s head. It can be played with both hands or only with the left, the right then providing a percussive accompaniment on the soundtable....

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Nigel Burton and Keith Horner

(b Crescentino, Piedmont, July 22, 1822; d Hove, Sussex, May 1, 1903). Italian conductor and composer. He studied the violin and composition at Milan Conservatory with Bernardo Ferrara for violin and Nicola Vaccai for composition. From this period come many of his chamber and orchestral works today found at the Milan Conservatory. His first opera, ...

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Keith Horner, R. Allen Lott and E. Douglas Bomberger

(b Crescentino, Italy, July 16, 1822; d Hove, England, May 1, 1903). Italian conductor and composer. After studying and working in Milan until 1846, he went with Giovanni Bottesini to Havana, where he conducted the Havana Italian Opera Company and produced his own one-act opera, ...

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Tully Potter

British -based string quartet. It was founded in London in 1974 by students at the RAM: Irvine Arditti, Lennox Mackenzie, Levine Andrade and John Senter. From the beginning the group has specialized (although not exclusively) in contemporary and 20th-century music. It has had a number of personnel changes. Mackenzie was replaced in turn by Alexander Balanescu (...

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Simon Adams

(b Wallington, England, May 26, 1937; d Milford, Derbs., Feb 23, 2004). English composer. He first played piano and tenor saxophone, and after graduating from Bristol University (1959) he studied arranging and composition with Raymond Premru (1960–61) and Bill Russo (...

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Barry Jean Ancelet

(b L’Anse des Prien Noir, near Duralde, LA, Nov 16, 1915; d Eunice, LA, May 18, 2007). Creole accordionist, vocalist, and songwriter. A cousin of the legendary Creole accordionist Amédé Ardoin, Alphonse became interested in the Creole “la-la” music of his community, learning to play on his older brother’s accordion. In the late 1940s, he teamed up with his long-time partner, Creole fiddler Canray Fontenot. Together they were the core of the Duralde Ramblers, performing at local dance halls and house dances. In ...

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Barry Jean Ancelet

(b L’Anse des Rougeau, near Basile, LA, March 11, 1898; d Pineville, LA, Nov 4, 1941). Creole accordionist, vocalist, and songwriter. Ardoin was influenced as a child by Adam Fontenot, father of Creole fiddler Canray Fontenot. He eventually became a locally popular accordionist and vocalist who in turn influenced many Cajun, Creole, and zydeco musicians. Alone or with his occasional partner, Cajun fiddler Dennis McGee, he recorded a total of 31 songs, many of which were eventually adopted and adapted by musicians such as Nathan Abshire, Austin Pitre, and especially Iry Lejeune, and later Dewey Balfa and Michael Doucet; these songs have become an important part of the core repertoire of Cajun and Creole music. His original 78s were collected and re-released by Arhoolie records, first on an LP and later on CD, and remain influential. Stylistically, he also influenced the development of zydeco with his highly syncopated, improvisational, complex accordion playing. His soulful, soaring vocal style and poetics influence both Cajun and Creole singers to this day. Stories concerning his death vary; some claim that he died as the result of venereal disease, others maintain that he died as the result of a racist-motivated beating he received after performing near Crowley, while still others say that he was poisoned by a jealous musician. His death certificate indicates only that he died ...

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Andrea F. Bohlman

(b Alexandria, LA, Jan 8, 1935; d San José, Costa Rica, March 16, 2001). American music critic. Ardoin studied composition and music theory at North Texas State College, the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Oklahoma, and at Michigan State University. After completing army service in Germany, he began his professional career in New York City as an editor for ...

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Areíto  

Sean Bellaviti

The term variously refers to a large-scale ceremonial/celebratory event, the music-dance practices performed on these occasions, and a “song” based on the recitation or singing of ancient histories (e.g., genealogies), laws, and possibly specific song lyrics. The tradition was practiced by the Taíno (Arawak) peoples living in the Greater Antilles prior to and shortly after the Spanish ...

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Arekwa  

Double clapperless bell of the Igbo people of Nigeria. Extremely large and made of iron, it is used with a drum ensemble by the rulers of Nsukka for the yam festival and New Year celebrations.

See also Ogene .

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Daria Semegen

(b Istanbul, April 23, 1919; d Stony Brook, NY, Nov 24, 1990). American composer of Turkish birth. He graduated from the Ankara State Conservatory with a diploma in composition, conducting and piano performance (1947). In 1951 he studied sound engineering in Ankara with Joze Bernard and Willfried Garret of Radio Diffusion Française. He co-founded the Helikon Society of Contemporary Arts and was the first music director of Radio Ankara's Western music programmes (...

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(b Seville; fl 1628–33). Spanish writer. He was a member of the Trinitarian order in Seville. Between 1628 and 1633 he wrote several pseudo-historical works on local and religious topics as well as one pertaining to music: El psalterio de David: exortación, y virtudes de la música, y canto, para todo género de gentes, en particular para los eclesiásticos, y obligación que tienen de cantar, o rezar las divinas alabanzas con toda atención, y devoción...

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Michael Ethen

A genre of recorded music and performance that peaked in the 1970s. After a decade of the music’s development, the label stabilized in critical discourse around 1977. It describes a subset of rock music either designed for, or to evoke, performance in large venues, delivered chiefly by American groups backed by powerful conglomerate record companies. As a marker of its wide popularity, the genre drew the scorn of rockist critics but the adoration of unabashed entertainment seekers. Typical songs are either anthemic, encouraging the vocal and visceral participation of audiences, or of a ballad type, providing moments of repose. Instrumental solo features also figure prominently, showcasing drummer proficiency and reinforcing the ideals of guitar-hero culture. Designed for live performance, these songs also succeed as sonic artifacts, since recordings that include pre-recorded audience noise and rhythmic hand claps frequently give the illusion of concerts. Although recordings are equally deserving of the term, more illumination derives from an examination of its performance history....

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Ingrid Brainard

(b Solliès, [now Solliès-Pont, Var], late 15th century; d Saint Rémy, Bouches du Rhône, or Solliès, after 1543). French dance theorist and man of letters. In 1519 he began to study law at the University of Avignon, after completing his studies he joined the French troops that invaded Italy. Late in ...

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Gordana Lazarevich

(b Malta, 1713; d Naples, Nov 6, 1784). Italian organist and composer. In 1725 he entered the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesù Cristo, Naples, where he remained for ten years; among his teachers were Gaetano Greco and Francesco Durante, and Pergolesi was a fellow student. Arena composed operas for Rome, Turin, Venice and Naples, and some of his music was included in ...