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Karl Geiringer

(b Karlsruhe, March 19, 1898; d Freiburg, Dec 2, 1950). German musicologist . He studied music at Karlsruhe Conservatory and in 1919 gained the Scheffel State Prize for composition. He then studied musicology under Sandberger at Munich and under Kroyer at Heidelberg and Leipzig, obtaining the doctorate at Leipzig in ...

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(b St Peter, Schwarzwald, Aug 9, 1945). German musicologist. After taking private lessons in clarinet and music theory, he studied musicology with Dammann at Freiburg University, with philosophy and German literature as secondary subjects. He continued to study musicology (MA 1973, PhD 1975...

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Elena Sala Di Felice

(b Venice, Dec 11, 1668; d Venice, Nov 11, 1750). Italian poet, librettist, scholar and antiquarian. He was educated by the Somaschi fathers in the Venetian classical tradition, but was also familiar with the empiricism of Galileo and with rationalism. In 1691 he founded the Accademia degli Animosi, where he became prominent at a very young age as a poet in the late-Baroque mould. Like the more famous Accademia degli Animosi it had as its aim the restoration of Arcadian ‘good taste’. Zeno took part in the debate between G.G. Orsi and Bouhours, defending in a letter to Orsi of ...

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George Leotsakos and Katerina Levidou

(b Cairo, Dec 17, 1947). Greek composer and musicologist. Born to Greek parents in Egypt, he settled in Athens in 1961, where he studied theory and piano at the Hellenic Conservatory (1975–7), and composition with Yannis Ioannidis (1977–81) as well as physics at the University of Athens. He then went to Paris, where he studied musicology and the aesthetics of music at the Sorbonne, Panthéon Paris 1, with Michel Guiomar and Daniel Charles, as well as ‘musique formelle’ with Xenakis. He also attended Boulez’s seminars at the Collège de France (...

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(b Rostov-na-Donu, Oct 7, 1947). Russian musicologist . She studied musicology at the Moscow Conservatory (1965–70) with Yu.A. Fortunatov (her other teachers included I.A. Barsova and V.A. Zuckermann), and she completed her postgraduate studies at the Leningrad Institute for Theatre, Music and Cinematography with L.N. Raaben in ...

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Tamara Nikolayevna Levaya

(b Pavlodar, Yekaterinoslav province, 9/Dec 22, 1906; d Moscow, June 27, 1992). Russian musicologist and critic . He studied the theory of music at Kharkiv Conservatory under S.S. Bogatïryov and later studied the theory and history of music with Ivanov-Boretsky and composition with Zhilyayev at the Moscow Conservatory, graduating in ...

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Joseph S.C. Lam

(b 1378; d 1448). Chinese musician and theorist . Born the 17th son of Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Quan was a prince of many talents and interests. In Chinese music history he is remembered as the author of two most important documents, the ...

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Joseph S.C. Lam

(b 1536; d 1611). Chinese scholar, mathematician and music theorist . Heir apparent of the sixth prince of Zheng under the Ming dynasty, Zhu Zaiyu probably formulated the first system of equal temperament in world history.

Zhu’s achievement was based on the studies of his father, Zhu Houhuan (...

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Dieter Härtwig

(b Pulsnitz, Saxony, March 25, 1702; d after 1760). German composer and theorist . He was a son of the Pulsnitz schoolmaster and organist, Johann Gottlieb Ziegler. He learnt music from his father until he was 13; in 1715 he studied at the Halle orphanage, and in ...

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Siegmund Levarie

(b Erfurt, Germany, Jan 20, 1845; d Chicago, Sept 8, 1912). German-American music theorist . After settling in 1868 in Chicago, he taught mathematics, German and music at the German Lutheran School (1868–71) before establishing himself as a private music teacher. His independent and original views were greatly admired by Hans von Bülow, Hugo Kaun, Leopold Godowsky, Ferruccio Busoni, George P. Upton and others. Ziehn’s critical essays are mostly polemic, whether championing (Theodore Thomas, Anton Bruckner) or condemning (Hugo Riemann, Eduard Hanslick, Philipp Spitta). His system of exercises for pianists led him to the realization that passages beginning on D or A♭ yield upward and downward an exact symmetry of tones and of fingering – a principle of ‘symmetric inversion’ he subsequently applied to music theory. His textbooks on harmony and composition are distinguished by a minimum of rules and explanations and a wealth of music examples (from Schütz and Rameau to Bruckner and Boito). While still structuring chords by 3rds, he strongly rejected Riemann’s functional harmony and proceeded from accepting and interpreting literally the equally tempered division of the octave. The result is a chromatic and enharmonic system, occasionally complicated in its terminology, but pointing to the later language of Skryabin and Schoenberg. His ‘enharmonic law’ affirms that ‘every chord tone may become the fundamental’....

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Malinda Britton Schantz

(b Moline, IL, Aug 7, 1926). American composer and musicologist. She studied at the University of Wisconsin, Madison (BM 1948), Columbia University Teachers College (MA 1949) and the University of Chicago. Her composition instructors included Karl Ahrendt and Alexander Tcherepnin. After teaching in the public schools, she joined the music department at Northeastern Illinois University (...

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Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Palermo, Dec 24, 1937). Italian musicologist, son of Ottavio Ziino . After studying with Aurelió Roncaglia and Luigi Ronga at Rome University and graduating in 1962, he taught history of music at Perugia Conservatory (1962–3). Subsequently he studied musicology at Freiburg University with Reinhold Hammerstein, at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra in Rome with Eugène Cardine and Higini Anglès and at the Scuola di Paleografia e Filologia Musicale in Cremona with Raffaello Monterosso and Federico Mompellio. He taught music history at Cremona, (...

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(b Wauneta, KA, June 20, 1923). American musicologist . He attended the University of Southern California, where he took the BA in 1949 and the MA in 1952. He earned the BLitt at Oxford in 1956, then returned to USC to complete the doctorate on Purcell in ...

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Shelly C. Cooper

(b Peoria, IL, March 15, 1929; d Urbana, IL, Feb 15, 1995). American music educator and scholar. She earned degrees from Illinois Wesleyan University (BA 1951) and the University of Illinois (MS 1955, EdD 1963). She taught for three years in the Illinois public schools before joining the music faculties at Illinois Wesleyan University (...

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G.J. Cederquist

(b Lincoln, NE, Aug 23, 1960). American Director, adapter, and educator. From a family of academics, Zimmerman received her BS, MA, and PhD at Northwestern University in Performance Studies under the mentorship of Frank Galati. The program focused on how to adapt works of literature for the stage; much of Zimmerman’s later work would reflect such scholarly and text-based influences. Based in Chicago, her career began at Lookingglass Theatre Company, a troupe whose founding members also attended Northwestern. The company’s aesthetic focused on storytelling through strong physicality and breathtaking aerobatics within a highly presentational style, as seen in Zimmerman’s ...

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Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 21, 1904; d Cologne, Nov 16, 1978). German harpist and musicologist . He was the son of Rudolf Ewald Zingel (1876–1944), an organist, choral conductor and composer in Greifswald. From 1923 to 1927 he studied at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Berlin with harp (under Max Saal) as his main subject. He then studied musicology under Max Schneider, with German literature and aesthetics as secondary subjects, at the universities of Berlin, Breslau (...

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Viorel Cosma and Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Roman, July 14, 1883; d Sibiu, March 23, 1946). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher. He was a Romantic composer and a representative of the national Romanian school (through language and ethos). He studied at the Iaşi Conservatory (1902–5) with G. Musicescu, T. Cerne (harmony), and E. Mezzetti (singing), and then took composition lessons with C. Gatti at the Milan Conservatory (...

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Stana Duric-Klajn

(b Belgrade, May 25, 1901; d Belgrade, June 29, 1964). Serbian composer, musicologist, teacher and conductor. He studied at the Stanković Music School in Belgrade, where he also graduated in law in 1924; his composition studies were continued with Grabner at the Leipzig Conservatory (...

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Claude Conyers

(b Kansas City, MO, Dec 21, 1950). American modern dancer, choreographer, and company director. She was trained in various styles of show dancing by Joseph Stevenson, who had been a student of the famed dance anthropologist Katherine Dunham. Zollar followed in Dunham’s scholarly footsteps, eventually earning a master’s degree in fine arts at Florida State University, where she also studied ballet and modern dance. In ...

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Péter Balassa

(b Gyula, March 6, 1928). Hungarian philosopher and writer on the aesthetics of music. He studied under Georg Lukács at Budapest University, where he took the CSc in philosophy. He was principal research fellow at the Institute of Philosophy of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences until ...