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Kari Michelsen

City in Norway. Founded as Nidaros in 996, it was renamed Trondhjem in the 16th century; it was again called Nidaros in 1930–31 and then became Trondheim. From the Middle Ages until the 19th century it was the main Norwegian centre of church music. In the first half of the 11th century it became an episcopal see with its own school and Benedictine monastery; in the 12th century it became an archiepiscopal see. King Olaf II Haraldsson (ruled ...

Article

Turku  

Fabian Dahlström

City in Finland. Early musical life centred on the cathedral, the cathedral school (founded c1276) and the Dominican monastery. There were musicians in the 15th century, and court musicians accompanied Duke John during his residence in the castle (1556–63). Organists were appointed at the cathedral from ...

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Udine  

Franco Colussi

City in north-east Italy, capital of the province of the same name in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. In 983 it was ceded by Emperor Otto II of Saxony to Rodoaldo, patriarch of Aquileia, but it was only in the 13th century that the city began to assume some importance. In ...

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Ulm  

Adolf Layer and Christian Broy

German city on the Danube. An imperial residence in the Middle Ages, and later a free imperial city, Ulm was one of the most important trade centres of southern Germany between the 14th and 16th centuries. Its position on the river Danube linked it with Vienna and eastern Europe. After the Napoleonic Wars it became part of the kingdom of Württemberg and its hinterland was divided between Württemberg and Bavaria....

Article

Uppsala  

Carl-Allan Moberg and Jan Olof Rudén

City in Sweden. Its musical life has been largely determined by the city’s having been the seat of the Archbishop of Sweden since 1273 (which Gamla Uppsala had been since 1164) and the site of the oldest university in Scandinavia, founded in 1477. The cathedral houses the relics of St Eric (...

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Twin cities in Illinois, USA, site of the Illinois, University of, School of Music.

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Urbino  

Allan W. Atlas

Italian city in the Marche. It reached the summit of its cultural achievement during the late 15th and early 16th centuries, first during the reigns of Federigo da Montefeltro (1444–82; named duke in 1474) and his son Guidubaldo (1482–1508) and then, on the extinction of the Montefeltro line, during the early years of the reign of Francesco Maria I della Rovere (...

Article

Eva Herrmannová

City in north Bohemia with a Czech-German cultural history. The neo-Baroque Stadttheater was built in 1907–8 by the architect Alexander Graf, with decoration by Eduard Veit; it was repaired in 1947 and reconstructed in 1987–93 with 524 seats. Primarily German, it was first run by the actress Maria Pospischil (Pospíšilová, ...

Article

Utrecht  

Thiemo Wind

City in the Netherlands. The earliest musical records concern church music. Before the Reformation, which was completed in 1580, there were five minsters or collegiate churches (the cathedral of St Maarten or Domkerk, St Salvator or the Oud Munster, St Pieter, St Jan and the Mariakerk), four parish churches (the Buurkerk, Jacobikerk, Nicolaikerk and Geertekerk) and several monastic churches and chapels. In the 11th and 12th centuries each of the minsters had a cantor, who led the choristers in singing plainchant. In ...

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Gordon A. Anderson, Thomas B. Payne, Daniel Heartz, Richard Freedman, James R. Anthony, John Eby, Elisabeth Cook, Beverly Wilcox, Paul F. Rice, David Charlton, John Trevitt, Guy Gosselin and Jann Pasler

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Nicholas Temperley, Philip Olleson, Roger Bowers, H. Diack Johnstone, Richard Rastall, Peter Holman, Marie Axton, Richard Luckett, Andrew Wathey, Robert D. Hume, Simon McVeigh, Edward Croft-Murray, Arthur Jacobs, Gabriella Dideriksen, John Snelson, Cyril Ehrlich, Michael Musgrave, David C.H. Wright, Elizabeth Roche, Bernarr Rainbow, Anthony Kemp, Kathleen Dale, Peter Ward Jones and William J. Conner

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José Climent

City in Spain. In the 11th century it was the capital of the Moorish kingdom of Valencia. The antiquity of its musical tradition is indicated by martial and ritual dances, accompanied by oboes and flutes, depicted on ceramics discovered in the nearby village of San Miguel de Liria. The city’s earliest surviving musical document is the 13th-century ...

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Ennio Stipčević

City in northern Croatia (capital 1767–76). During the Middle Ages and Renaissance there were several monastic scriptoria present in Varaždin and the surrounding areas. The Pauline friars had a scriptorium in Lepoglava and founded the first public high school in continental Croatia (1503...

Article

Varna  

Magdalena Manolova

City in Bulgaria. It is the largest Bulgarian port and resort city on the Black Sea coast. Once the ancient Greek colony of Odessos, Varna is the centre of operatic activity in north-eastern Bulgaria. The first performances of opera scenes date from the founding of a choir at St Michael’s Church in ...

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David Charlton, John Trevitt and Guy Gosselin

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Nicholas Temperley, Philip Olleson, Roger Bowers, H. Diack Johnstone, Richard Rastall, Peter Holman, Marie Axton, Richard Luckett, Andrew Wathey, Robert D. Hume, Simon McVeigh, Edward Croft-Murray, Arthur Jacobs, Gabriella Dideriksen, John Snelson, Cyril Ehrlich, Michael Musgrave, David C.H. Wright, Elizabeth Roche, Bernarr Rainbow, Anthony Kemp, Kathleen Dale, Peter Ward Jones and William J. Conner

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Jann Pasler

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Nicholas Temperley, Philip Olleson, Roger Bowers, H. Diack Johnstone, Richard Rastall, Peter Holman, Marie Axton, Richard Luckett, Andrew Wathey, Robert D. Hume, Simon McVeigh, Edward Croft-Murray, Arthur Jacobs, Gabriella Dideriksen, John Snelson, Cyril Ehrlich, Michael Musgrave, David C.H. Wright, Elizabeth Roche, Bernarr Rainbow, Anthony Kemp, Kathleen Dale, Peter Ward Jones and William J. Conner

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Bernarr Rainbow and Anthony Kemp

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Vilnius  

Juozas Antanavičius

Capital city of Lithuania. It has at various times been under Polish and Russian dominion. From the 14th century there was a ducal court there and a singing school at Vilnius Cathedral. The granting of a city charter in 1387 led to the formation of musicians' guilds; around ...