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Katy Romanou

Capital city of Greece.

Athens, in contrast to most Western European capitals, had reached its deepest decline at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1834, when the city was established as the capital of the recently founded Greek state, it consisted of some 100 houses below the Parthenon, the symbol of the acme of the Athenian democracy in the 5th century ...



N. Lee Orr

American city, capital of Georgia. Concert life in Atlanta probably began in February 1858 when Sigismond Thalberg, assisted by Henry Vieuxtemps, brought his Grand Concert to the recently completed Athaeneum Theater. Opera appeared for the first time in October 1866 when Max Strakosch and the Ghioni and Sussini Grand Italian Opera company opened the Bell-Johnson Hall (cap. 600) with ...


Libby Nichol

City in New Zealand. Located in the north of the North Island, it is the country's largest city, with a population of approximately one million. European settlement dates from 1840; organized musical activities from 1845 featured the bands of the 58th and, later, 65th Regiments of the Imperial Forces. They supplied the music not only for military events but also for balls, soirées, outdoor concerts and church occasions. The Auckland Choral Society, founded in ...



Hugh Cullen Sparks and Jerry Young

American city, capital of Texas. The first settlers (1835) were predominantly of German descent. The city was incorporated in 1839. The Austin Lyceum was established in 1841 to promote the study of the arts. It was disbanded the following year. Evening concerts were given in the grounds of the capitol from ...



Marcel Frémiot and Charles Pitt

City in France, capital of the prefecture of the Vaucluse département. Roman chant was introduced to Avignon at the end of the 7th century by the monks of Lérins, who were summoned there by Bishop Agricol. Of the troubadours, only two songs have survived, one by Bertran Folco d'Avigno and one by Raimon d'Avigno. A university was founded in ...


Bad Ems  

German town. See under Koblenz.


Friedrich Baser and Thorsten Lorenz

Town in south-west Germany. Before its 19th-century blossoming as a spa town, the town’s musical life was unremarkable. The margraves patronized music from the 15th century onwards, most notably Philip II (d 1588), and the Jesuit college gave comedies with music until 1771...


Elliott W. Galkin and N. Quist

American city, the largest city in Maryland. Its musical history can be traced to the American Revolutionary period. First settled in 1662, Baltimore became a town in 1730. By 1800 its population of more than 26,000 was larger than that of the state’s capital, Annapolis. As early as ...



Percy M. Young

Town in Bavaria, Germany. From the early 11th century to the early 19th the bishop of Bamberg was entitled to the rank of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Although vocal music was mentioned in the earliest accounts of the cathedral (founded in 1012), the institution of a song school in ...



Pierfranco Moliterni

City in Apulia, southern Italy. Despite the many musical associations of the region, Bari had no real theatre until the mid- 19th century. From 1815 to 1835 the Teatro del Sedile, the only building capable of holding even 250 people, presented recitals, concerts, drama and opera. Between ...



Renato Bossa

Main city of the Apulia region in southern Italy. The first records of musical activity there date from the 11th and 12th centuries, when the Cathedral of S Nicola founded its schola cantorum, still active in training choristers and providing music at the services. There are also records of dramatic performances of the Easter sequence during High Mass; ...



Town in Germany. It was united with Elberfeld in 1929 to form Wuppertal.



Tilman Seebass

City in Switzerland. Its musical life probably differed little from that of other episcopal sees during the Middle Ages, but with the Great Council (1431–49), the foundation of the university (1460), the establishment of printing houses and the emergence of humanism, the city, located on the Rhine in northern Switzerland, developed an active cultural life....



Watkins Shaw, Frank Brown and Noël Goodwin

City in the county of Somerset, south-west England.

The musical history of Bath goes back no further than the early 18th century when from about 1704 the celebrated ‘Beau’ Nash first established the city as a fashionable resort. Nash soon promoted a subscription for a band of five or six musicians who were paid a guinea a week and who at first played under some large trees in a grove until the physicians persuaded Nash to permit them to play in the Pump Room itself. Eventually the little band was enlarged to seven players whose engagement at two guineas a week covered performances at the Pump Room in the mornings and at balls in the Assembly Rooms in the evenings. As early as ...


Village in Italy near Grosseto, Tuscany, the site of an opera festival since 1974. The festival, which takes place during July and August, was founded by the designer Adam Pollock on the site of a ruined monastery, Santa Croce; the theatre is an open-air cloister in which performances are given in the late evening by the company Musica nel Chiostro (‘Music in the Cloister’). It was inaugurated by a performance of Purcell’s ...


Jeff Perry

City in Louisiana (pop. 229,553; metropolitan area 802,484; 2010 US Census). The capital city of Louisiana, it was founded about 1699 and colonized successively by French, Spanish, and US settlers, accompanied by African American slaves. The city is located on the first of a series of bluffs north of the Mississippi River Delta. It was incorporated as a town in ...


David Hiley

City in France. It is the diocesan seat in the archdiocese of Reims. It was the capital of the Bellovaci Gauls until Julius Caesar’s conquest in 57 bce; the Normans overran it in 851 and 861. The last reference to a lay Count of Beauvais occurs in ...



Jonathan P.J. Stock

Capital city of China. With a recorded history of some three millennia, Beijing has been one of China's principal centres since its selection as imperial capital by the invading Mongols in the late 13th century. Capital for much of the intervening seven centuries, Beijing has been an important location for many genres of Chinese music, including court music, religious music, theatrical and ballad-singing forms and, more recently, Western and Western-influenced styles....



Peter Downey

Capital city of Northern Ireland. Belfast was only a settled river-crossing in earlier times. St Comgall (d c602) founded an important monastic centre at Bangor (20 km away) in 555, whose monks brought its rule and learning to Britain and continental Europe: the 7th-century Bangor Antiphonary originated here....


Bojan Bujic and Roksanda Pejović

Capital city of Yugoslavia. As the capital of the Kingdom of Serbia, which won its independence from the Turks in the early 19th century, Belgrade became open to Western cultural influence in the 1830s. Political and cultural life were strongly influenced by Romantic nationalism which gave rise to the development of choral music with a pronounced patriotic flavour. This was reflected in the number and stature of various choral societies which were founded during the second half of the century. At that time opera advanced very slowly and its main form was a type of Singspiel which owed its popularity largely to Davorin Jenko (...