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Krk  

Vjera Katalinić

Croatian island. The largest among the Croatian islands, situated in the North Adriatic littoral, in the gulf of Kvarnero. Throughout history, particularly since the Illyrian and Roman times, it shared the destiny of neighbouring islands under the long Venetian rule (1480–1793) and later, after the period of anti-Napoleonic wars, and until ...

Article

Mawwāl  

Important Arabic song form performed in melismatic style.

Syria, §4: Musical instruments

Article

Barbara B. Smith, Adrienne L. Kaeppler, Osamu Yamaguti, Junko Konishi, Mary E. Lawson Burke, Michael Clement and Cynthia B. Sajnovsky

Conventional geographic and cultural division of the North Pacific Ocean comprising c2500 islands. With Melanesia and Polynesia they make up the Pacific Islands.

Micronesia (Gk. mikro: ‘small’; nēsos: ‘island’) is the name given by Europeans in the 1830s to the islands that lie east of island South-east Asia, north of Melanesia (and mostly north of the equator) and west of northern Polynesia (for map ...

Article

Philip V. Bohlman

The Middle East as a musical area is recognizable in patterns of historical, geographical, religious and musical continuities, yet is also subject to discontinuities that result in part from extensive cultural and political conflict, and geographical and geo-cultural divisions (e.g. mountains/desert, urban/rural). Scholarly traditions espousing the musical unity of the Middle East are based primarily on the theoretical similarities in the art musics of the region; on the extensive presence of Islam throughout the region, with its historical, linguistic and aesthetic influences on musical practices in virtually all Middle Eastern societies, even non-Islamic; and on the geographical location of the Middle East, historically imagined as lying ‘between’ Europe and both Asia and Africa. If the musics of the Middle East display unity when viewed from the top down, discontinuity predominates when local practices or hybrid traditions are viewed from the bottom up. As a regional musical culture the Middle East is the historical template for tension between canonic traditions and extensive variation, religious ideologies and aesthetic resistance to them, and the pull between centralized repertories and fragmentation at geographical peripheries....

Article

Midwest  

Suzanne G. Snyder

The Midwest, as the midwestern United States are commonly called, consists of 12 states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The earliest music of this area consisted of the rhythms and songs of the indigenous peoples who inhabited it, which were later followed by the traditional music of explorers, trappers, and settlers....

Article

Gerard Béhague

Region in Brazil. A mining region for gold and precious stones, it was discovered in the late 17th century and exploited throughout the next century, during which an important musical life developed. Its population at first included Amerindians (pure blood or mestizos), Portuguese and Brazilian colonizers and African slaves. By the mid-18th century mulattos and Brazilians of African descent formed the majority of the population in spite of intensive migration from Portugal and other areas of the colony itself. Soon a large number of free mulattos held important positions among the clergy and became craftsmen and artists, and the splendid development of local Baroque architecture, sculpture and music was due largely to them. The musicologist Francisco Curt Lange, who first uncovered the musical history of this area, referred to this phenomenon as ...

Article

Scott Barretta

Although widely employed, the term “Mississippi Delta” does not refer to the actual delta of the Mississippi River, which is downriver from New Orleans. It is instead the common reference for the Yazoo-Mississippi delta, a diamond-shaped alluvial plain located between the river bluff cities of Memphis, Tennessee, and Vicksburg, Mississippi. Approximately 220 miles in length, it stretches about 60 miles at its widest point (through Greenville and Greenwood)....

Article

Matt Meacham

In the broadest sense, the Missouri River drainage basin, encompassing portions of ten states and two Canadian provinces. It would be difficult to argue that the entire basin constitutes a discrete musical region or to summarize the musical history of such a diverse area coherently and concisely. Therefore, this entry discusses the Lower Missouri Valley: the area surrounding the section of the river from Sioux City, Iowa, to its confluence with the Mississippi at St. Louis, Missouri, including portions of central and northern Missouri, western Iowa, northeastern Kansas, and eastern Nebraska. ...

Article

Moravia  

Region of Central Europe, now part of the Czech Republic .

Bartoš, František (i)

Sušil, František

Bohemia

Moravians, music of the

Article

Chris Reali

A region in northwestern Alabama that was renowned during the 1960s and 70s for its recording studios and studio musicians. Located nearly halfway between Nashville and Memphis, the area known as Muscle Shoals is comprised of four cities: Florence, Sheffield, Tuscumbia, and Muscle Shoals. Drawing from the sounds of blues, rhythm and blues, rock ‘n’ roll, and country, the music associated with Muscle Shoals became so influential in popular music that by the early 1970s the area proclaimed itself the Hit Recording Capitol of the World....

Article

This region (formerly known as the Dutch West Indies) consists of six islands in the Caribbean Sea: Aruba; Bonaire and Curaçao (known as the Netherlands Leeward Islands); and Saba, St Eustatius and the southern half of St Maarten (the Netherlands Windward Islands). Aruba and those in the Leeward group are situated off the coast of Venezuela, while those in the Windward group are located to the south-east of Puerto Rico, forming part of the chain of islands known as the Lesser Antilles. The total area of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba is 993 sq. km. The largest island, Curaçao, is 444 sq. km; the smallest, Saba, is 13 sq. km. The combined population is approximately 298,000 which breaks down as follows: Curaçao, 151,000; Aruba, 91,000; St Maarten (Dutch half), 39,000; Bonaire, 14,000; St Eustatius, 1,900; and Saba, 1,000....

Article

Leah G. Weinberg

This article broadly addresses music making since the early 17th century in the states comprising New England: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Although religious denomination, trade, and other factors connected New Englanders to Canadians to the north and fellow Americans in other regions, New England’s colonial history and geography, and the importance of Boston as a cultural and trade center, fostered a regionally distinct musical identity. See individual city entries on ...

Article

A Pacific island. The western portion belongs to the Republic of Indonesia, the remainder is part of the independent nation Papua New Guinea. For a discussion of its music, see Melanesia .

Lament, §3: South-east Asia and Melanesia

Article

Drew Beisswenger, Julie Henigan and Matt Meacham

Predominantly rural region including much of southern and central Missouri, northern Arkansas, and arguably parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Illinois. Musically, the Ozarks is known for contributing to folk and popular genres associated with the Upland South. Its musical history bespeaks diversity, however, and, in many respects, parallels that of the nation....

Article

For a discussion of the music of this area see Arabian Gulf and Arab music ; for a discussion of the music of the Iranian south coast see Iran, §I, 1 .

Article

Peter Schimpf

The conglomerate of mountain ranges collectively known as the Rocky Mountains (or the Rockies) extends from New Mexico northward through Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, arching westward through Montana and Idaho into British Columbia, Canada. The region is home to a great variety of musical cultures, among them many Native American groups, religious organizations, academic institutions, popular venues, and a wide variety of music organizations and festivals. Much of the music of the Rocky Mountains arrived from elsewhere, yet the geography and history of the region has shaped a distinct musical culture. While the large urban areas of cities such as ...

Article

David Crawford

A mountainous region (formerly a county, then a duchy) in south-east France, which included parts of present-day Italy, France and Switzerland (see map). The house of Savoy assumed power in 1003 and held the Italian crown from 1860 to 1946. The court took a leading part in the European development of music during the second quarter of the 15th century, sharing with nearby Burgundy a critical role in the early development of Renaissance styles....

Article

Silesia  

Region of Central Europe, now part of the Czech Republic .

Article

Jim Samson

A meta region within Europe. Its geographical boundaries are imprecise, but the Balkan peninsula is usually regarded as core territory. Constituent nation states are Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, Romania, and at least five of the six former republics of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of, themselves now independent states: ...

Article

R. Anderson Sutton

This diverse cultural region encompasses the peoples living south of China, east of India, north of Australia and west of Papua New Guinea. Mainland South-east Asia consists of the nations of Myanmar (Burma), Laos, Cambodia (Kampuchea), Vietnam, Thailand, peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Insular South-east Asia consists of the vast archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines, along with Brunei and two states of eastern Malaysia in western and northern Borneo (the remainder of Borneo, called Kalimantan, is part of Indonesia). This region is home to 580 million people, near 240 million of whom live in Indonesia, the most populous South-east Asian nation and the fourth most populous in the world. Many hundreds of languages are spoken in South-east Asia, some by as few as several hundred people, others (such as Javanese and Vietnamese) by more than 70 million people. For more detailed information, see individual country articles....