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Article

Arion  

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Methymna [now Molyvos], Lesbos; fl 625–600 bce). Greek singer to the kithara and choral lyric poet. He was associated with the beginnings of the dithyramb. None of his works has survived. According to Herodotus he spent most of his life at the court of Periander, tyrant of Corinth (...

Article

Warren Anderson, Thomas J. Mathiesen and Robert Anderson

(bc450 bce; dc385 bce). Greek dramatist. The chief poet of Athenian Old Comedy, he wrote more than 40 plays, of which 11 have survived.

Of the works of Aristophanes’ first period (427–421 bce), the revised Clouds includes many references to music; the most noteworthy are the mockery of ...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Stagirus, 384 bce; d Chalcis, 322 bce). Greek philosopher.

In order to consider Aristotle's views on music, it is necessary to make some reference to the theories of sense perception and ethical behaviour on which they are based. His treatise On the Soul...

Article

Annie Bélis

(b Tarentum, Magna Graecia, c375–360 bce; d ?Athens). Greek music theorist, philosopher and writer. According to the Suda he was the son of a musician called Mnesias or Spintharus who gave him his early musical education. It is not known to which philosophical or musical school Mnesias belonged, but he may have been one of the Pythagoreans whose political influence had been dominant in Magna Graecia, particularly in Tarentum, with which Archytas had long been associated. Mnesias could have known a number of prominent figures both in Magna Graecia and in Athens: the musicians Archytas, Damon and Philoxenus, as well as Socrates and perhaps even the Theban general Epaminondas. Aristoxenus himself followed the teachings of Lamprus of Erythrae, and then, in Athens, of Xenophilus the Pythagorean. He spent most of his life in Greece. A fragment of one of his works indicates that he lived for some time at Mantinea in Arcadia, where music, which was held in high esteem, was subject to the kind of conservative laws that appealed to his austerity and love of ancient traditions....

Article

(bc1000; d before 1050). Benedictine writer and composer. He was a monk, and later prior, of St Emmeram in Regensburg and the author of a new plainchant Office for the patron saint of his monastery; he also wrote extensively about St Emmeram and on other matters. The Office, which survives in ...

Article

Dimitri Conomos

The urban or ‘cathedral’ Office of the Byzantine rite, performed at the Great Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. In its complete form it is preserved in liturgical manuscripts copied between the 8th and the 12th centuries. The asmatikē akolouthia originally differed from the monastic Office celebrated in Palestine: the cathedral rite used music in the performance of its fixed psalms (psalms appropriate to the hour of the day) as well as responsorial chants and sung refrains; in monasteries, however, there was little or no singing, merely the verse by verse recitation of the complete Psalter throughout each week. (...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Naucratis, Egypt; fl c200 ce). Greek grammarian and encyclopedist. He settled in Rome at the beginning of the 3rd century ce. None of his works has survived except the Deipnosophistai, a vast compendium in 15 extant books, probably written after 192 ...

Article

James W. McKinnon and Joseph Dyer

Saint, churchman, and scholar. He was perhaps the most influential figure in the history of Christian thought, rivalled only by Thomas Aquinas and possibly Origen. Born in North Africa to a pagan father and Christian mother, the sainted Monica, he studied rhetoric in Carthage where he lost his boyhood Christian faith. In ...

Article

Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl ?4th century ce). Greek writer on music. He was the author of a small musical catechism preserved under the title Introduction to the Art of Music (Eisagōgē technēs mousikēs). The treatise is usually (though not always) followed in the manuscripts by a second distinct treatise but with the same title and author; the second treatise in turn is followed in most (but not all) manuscripts by this epigram:...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Iulis, Keōs [now Tzia/Kea]; fl c470 BCE). Greek lyric poet. He was a nephew of Simonides and contemporary of Pindar; there are many indications of intense rivalry between the two as composers of victory odes and dithyrambs. Unlike Pindar, Bacchylides had little to say of the power of music; his references are correct but conventional, rendered distinctive only by colourful adjectives. Thus in one of the many victory odes the champion has returned home to the triumphal accompaniment of auloi ‘that delight mortals’ and revel-songs ‘sweetly breathing’ (Edmonds, frag.40.72–3). In another, the sound of the phorminx and ‘clear-ringing’ choruses are alien to war (Edmonds, frag.41.12–15; ...

Article

Alexander Lingas

(b Constantinople, ?1615; d ?1700). Romaic (Greek) composer and patriarchal official. Born into a family of Peloponnesian origin, he received his general education at the Patriarchal Academy under Theophilos Korydalleus. Together with Kosmas Makedonos he was taught Byzantine chant by Germanos, for whom he composed an acclamation. In a pre-...

Article

David W. Music

Baptists are an evangelical Christian denomination whose name is derived from the distinctive doctrine of believers' baptism, usually administered by means of total immersion. Traditional Baptist beliefs also include the authority of the Bible, the soul-competency of the individual believer, a symbolic interpretation of the Lord's Supper, and the autonomy of the local church (although churches have often joined together in voluntary associations and conventions). In most other doctrines Baptists are similar to other mainstream evangelical groups. From modest beginnings in the 17th century Baptists have grown into one of the world's largest evangelical Christian denominations; in ...

Article

Bārbad  

(fl late 6th–early 7th century ce). Persian lutenist, music theorist and composer. He was active during the reign of Khosrow II (ruled 591–628 ce); see Iran, §I, 5 and Iran, §III, 1

Article

Dimitri Conomos

(b Edessa [now Urfa], July 11, 154; d Edessa, 222). Syrian hymnographer, astrologer and philosopher. Born into a pagan priestly family, he was educated by a pagan priest but baptized as a Christian, and in 179 he was ordained deacon and priest. Later denounced as a heretic and excommunicated (...

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Bareia  

[bareiai diplai]. Sign used in pairs in Byzantine Ekphonetic notation.

Article

John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

In 

See Plainchant

Article

Bede  

Calvin Bower and Jane Bellingham

(b Northumbria, 673; d Jarrow, 735). Anglo-Saxon monk, writer and historian. His works, particularly the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’), provide important evidence for the practice of music in the Anglo-Saxon Church during the 6th, 7th and early 8th centuries. At the age of seven, he was placed under the care of Benedict Biscop (628–90), abbot and founder of the Northumbrian monastery of St Peter at Wearmouth. When Biscop founded the brother abbey of St Paul at Jarrow in 682 Bede was sent there to join its abbot Ceolfrith (642–716). Bede spent the rest of his life at Jarrow, where he became a dedicated teacher, never travelling outside Northumbria. Biscop and Ceolfrith acquired many books on their frequent journeys to Rome and Gaul and were largely responsible for the substantial collection of manuscripts owned by the abbeys; they also created one of the most important scriptoria in Anglo-Saxon England. Wearmouth became a major centre for the teaching of liturgical music in Northumbria when in 680 Biscop acquired the services of John, archcantor of St Peter’s basilica and abbot of St Martin’s in Rome, to teach his monks how to celebrate the liturgy and to chant according to the practice of the Roman churches....

Article

David Hiley

(dc1193). Benedictine abbot and composer. He was a monk, and later chancellor (1174) and prior (1175), of the cathedral priory of Christ Church, Canterbury, and was appointed abbot of Peterborough in 1177. A friend of Archbishop Thomas Becket, whose murder he may have witnessed, he composed the rhymed monastic office of St Thomas of Canterbury (...

Article

James W. McKinnon

(b Nursia [now Norcia], Umbria, c480; d Monte Cassino, after 546). Italian saint and monk. His Rule became the norm for Western Christian monasticism. The only source of information concerning Benedict’s life is book 2 of Pope Gregory’s Dialogues (c594). Gregory was primarily interested in Benedict’s miracles, and although he outlined the main events of Benedict’s life he did not assign dates to them. The sole date of any certainty is that of the visit of the Ostrogothic King Totila to him near Monte Cassino, probably in 546; all others rest on speculation....

Article

Alexander Lingas

(b Constantinople, ?1665; d ?1725). Romaic (Greek) composer and cantor. Though undoubtedly influenced by the works of Panagiotes, Germanos and Balasios, he appears never to have been directly associated with the patriarchal court that nurtured his older colleagues. His own substantial contributions to their continuing renewal of Byzantine chanting were made instead from the Constantinopolitan parish church of St Constantine (in the district of Hypsomatheia), where Bereketes held successively the offices of reader, ...