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Article

Akya  

Popular wooden flute of the Tiv people of Nigeria. It is cruciform with a fingerhole at the end of each arm and used with skin drums and slit drums to accompany dancing.

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Alamoru  

Peter Cooke

End-blown flute of the Teso and Karamoja areas of Uganda, also reported in Kenya. It has two or four fingerholes and is blown obliquely. It is a pastoral instrument, presumably made of cane or bamboo, and in Teso there are two types: a short flute (50 cm) with fingerholes near the bottom end, which is cut at an angle, and a long one (117 cm) with four fingerholes near the middle and a small gourd bell about 5 cm in diameter....

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A bass flute invented by Abelardo Albisi in 1910. See Flute, §II, 3, (v).

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Alboka  

Sabin Bikandi Belandia

Basque double-pipe hornpipe similar to the pibgorn and the Scottish stockhorn. The idioglot single reeds are cut into small, removable cane tubes that fit into the upper ends of the parallel cane pipes. The pipes share a cowhorn bell and a second horn at the upper end that serves as a wind cap. A decoratively carved wooden yoke supports both the pipes and the horns. Circular breathing is used. Old instruments vary in size and tuning. In the late 20th century the scale was standardized, producing in the five-holed left-hand pipe the notes ...

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Italian 16th-century cleric who invented the Phagotum.

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Alele  

Notched flute of the Edo/Bini people of Nigeria.

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Ałepa  

Laurence Libin

Term for various instruments among the Choctaw people of Mississippi, USA. Meanings of the term were probably extended to cover non-native instruments by Rev. Cyrus Byington, a 19th-century missionary concerned with translating the Bible into Choctaw. Ałepa chito denotes a large drum or bass fiddle, ...

Article

Terence J. O’Grady and Bryan Proksch

(b Los Angeles, CA, March 31, 1935). American trumpeter, composer, bandleader, and record company executive. He studied trumpet as a child and left college to play in the army for a two-year period. After three years of producing records on his own, he launched A&M Records with Jerry Moss in ...

Article

Alphorn  

Anthony C. Baines and Max Peter Baumann

Wooden trumpet of pastoral communities in the Alps. The name is also conveniently used to cover similar instruments of Scandinavia, Russia, the western Slav countries, Hungary, Romania and, up to the 19th century, some of the highlands of Germany. Szadrowsky's vague reports of alphorns in the Pyrenees and the Scottish highlands are unconfirmed. An alphorn is made of a young fir, lime, poplar etc.; a mountainside tree curving upwards from the roots is often chosen, giving an upturned bell. The wood is longitudinally halved by axe or saw and each half is hollowed. The two pieces are reunited under strips of bark or binding of roots or gut. The mouthpiece may be either cut in the wood or made separately. In several areas the folded shape of a trumpet is sometimes imitated. The commonest length of the alphorn is about 185 cm, in which case its range extends to the 5th or 6th harmonic (as quoted by Beethoven at the end of the Pastoral Symphony). Many alphorns are 120 cm in length or less; however, instruments 335 cm long have been known in Switzerland since the 16th century, and specimens up to 520 cm occur in Slovakia. Today the standard length ranges from 340 cm to 360 cm for alphorns tuned in F or G. Tunes may then ascend to the 12th harmonic or even higher....

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Alto flute. See Flute, §II, 3, (iv).

Article

Nicholas Shackleton

A member of the clarinet family (see Clarinet, §II, 1), normally pitched in E♭ (it is classified as an aerophone). It is used chiefly in military bands and wind bands, and is usually built with an upturned metal bell and a curved metal crook; the two-piece body carries a mechanism of similar design and layout to that of the soprano clarinet, with two common exceptions. First, because the tone-holes are a little large for convenient covering, the instrument is frequently made with tone-holes covered by plates instead of directly by the fingers; second, there are commonly two speaker keys, as on the bass clarinet....

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A flute pitched in G, a 4th below the concert flute. See Flute, §II, 3, (iv).

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American term for a valved brass instrument pitched in E♭ below the cornet and employed in some wind bands; its form is upright, often with the bell turned forward. It is equivalent to the English Tenor horn.

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Altoboe  

Tenor oboe in F. It has an english horn body and a clarinet bell and was conceived by Wagner. See Oboe, §III, 4, (v).

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Aluti  

Side-blown animal horn of the Teso people of Uganda. The name aluti is attributed to the Mbale district, aluut to the Usuku area. The aluut is blown to summon assemblies and on ceremonial occasions. In regions adjoining Karamoja it is used by herdboys to scare away hyenas....

Article

F.J. de Hen

Notched flute of the Hutu of Rwanda. It is made of bamboo with three or four fingerholes placed to suit the player, usually a herdsman who makes his own flute. The similar umwilenge has two fingerholes.

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Ambimbo  

F.J. de Hen

Wooden whistle of the Makere of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. There are two types: a cylindrical, stopped whistle threaded onto a cord or wire either singly or in a set, and a whistle with a slender conical bore. These are probably used for hunting and signalling. (...

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Añafil  

Mauricio Molina

Term for the Arab and Persian nafīr, a straight trumpet. It was introduced to Iberia by the Moors during the Middle Ages. The añafil is commonly represented in Iberian art from the 10th century to the 13th with banners and in the context of battles, and thereafter throughout medieval European iconography....

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Anche  

Philip Bate

The French term for the prepared reed of a wind instrument, as distinct from roseau meaning ‘reed’ in a general or botanical sense. (The latter word is used by the reed growers and is extended by French suppliers to cover cut and split sections of the plant stem up to the actual stage of shaping.) The plural, ...

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Wooden whistle of the Dogon people of Mali.