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Article

Hugh Davies

Instrument constructed by Akio Suzuki in several versions since 1972. It consists of a long, flexible spring stretched between two metal cylinders, each with an ‘echo-plate’ across one end. One cylinder is normally fixed. The spring, which can be extended up to at least 8 metres, is stroked, plucked, or struck; the instrument is also effective if, when the spring is extended, the performer sings into the cylinder that is held. Three types of Analapos have been made: Type A is a single unit (many of which have been sold to collectors); Type B (four models) consists of a tall stand from which between four and about 20 units are suspended; and Type C, the Deep-Sea Sonar, consists of a single spring mounted inside a cardboard tube about 1 to 1½ metres long, which is shaken to produce the sound (hundreds have been made for educational purposes). The long resonances and echoes of the first two types are matched visually: especially when the spring is fully stretched, a ‘wave’ can be seen to travel across the instrument several times in each direction before dying away. Suzuki has explored similar sound qualities in the Spring Cong family, in which lengths of thin sprung steel ‘ribbon’ are mounted on a stand (in spiral or arc configurations, or in two interlocking vertical loops at right angles to each other) or on a wooden base (in arc or ‘omega’ shapes)....

Article

Alastair Dick and Jeremy Montagu

Variable tension chordophone of Bengal (east India and Bangladesh). Ānandalaharī (‘waves of joy’) appears to be a literary name; in the countryside the instrument is more often called by the onomatopoeic names gubgubī or khamak. The body is a wooden cylinder open at both ends and somewhat barrel-shaped or tapering inward towards the top. The lower opening is completely covered by a skin and the upper by a skin with the centre cut away; both skins are laced to plaited leather hoops and braced by cord V-lacings, each having a metal tuning-ring, giving an inverted Y-shape. (Older models had only a lower skin, glued on.) A gut string is looped through two holes and a protective button (or piece of bamboo etc.) in the centre of the lower skin, passing up through the body as a single or double string to a hole in the bottom of a small brass pot, where the string is attached with another toggle. The body is tucked into the left armpit and the string tensioned by the left hand gripping the small pot; the right hand plucks the string with a small plectrum of bone, plastic, or other material. The tension of the string, and hence its pitch, can be greatly and instantly varied by the left hand to produce a dramatic accompaniment for song or dance; it can play both rhythms and melodies, with swooping portamento leaps within about an octave. The ...

Article

James W. McKinnon and Robert Anderson

In 

See Lute

Article

Ian Harwood and Tim Crawford

A two-headed lute with ten single strings on the lower head and six or seven on the upper. Its characteristic diatonic tuning greatly restricts its compass, but the tone of the open strings is full and clear. An instrument of the lute family, tuned in this way, was depicted by Praetorius (...

Article

A term used in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification for a type of ‘open’ harp (i.e. without forepillar) in which the neck makes a sharp angle with the resonator rather than extending in a curve. See Harp, esp. §1.

Article

Laurence Libin

Jew’s harp of Cambodia. It is a thin, narrow, tapering slip of bamboo about 24 cm long, with an idioglot tongue tuned with a blob of beeswax. The bamboo can be decorated with a painted design. It was traditionally used as a voice disguiser in courting and sometimes played for recreation by herders. Nowadays it is available commercially and played by children. Reportedly the name also denotes an iron jew’s harp with heteroglot tongue, also tuned with wax....

Article

Mikaela Minga

(b Tirana, Albania, April 12, 1949; d Tirana, Sept 28, 2012). Albanian cellist. His parents were acclaimed artists. His father, Kristaq Antoniu, was a singer, actor, and stage director. His mother, Androniqi Zengo, was a painter. Between 1967 and 1973 Antoniu completed his cello studies at the Albanian Higher Institute of Arts (...

Article

Apang  

Geneviève Dournon

Variable tension chordophone of Rajasthan, north India. It has a cylindrical body, originally of wood or gourd but now commonly a tin can with ends removed. A skin is stretched over the lower end. A straight wooden neck about 60 cm long, affixed along the body, has a large movable peg through its upper part. A metal string extends from the peg to the centre of the skin. The musician plucks the string with one hand, using either fingers or a plectrum, and with the other hand turns the peg to vary the pitch. The ...

Article

Short-necked bowed lute of Abkhazia. The pear-shaped body with arched back extends into an unfretted neck surmounted by a flat circular pegdisk. Two gut strings are affixed to a short tailpiece, cross a tall bridge below a small circular soundhole, and are tuned a 5th apart by pegs inserted from the back. The instrument’s total length is about 70 to 80 cm. It is held vertically with the body between the knees, and bowed with a high-arched bow, its hair tightened by the fingers of the bowing hand. It is played mostly by men to accompany epic, ceremonial, and domestic songs, and to perform dance tunes....

Article

Lucy M. Long

Fretted zither traditional to the southern Appalachian mountains of the eastern USA, consisting of a narrow fingerboard attached to a larger soundbox underneath. Variant names include ‘delcumer’, ‘dulcymore’, ‘harmonium’, ‘hog fiddle’, ‘music box’, and ‘harmony box’. Long found only in scattered pockets of tradition, the dulcimer has since the 1950s gained popularity outside the mountains; at the beginning of the 21st century it was being widely used by both amateur and professional musicians in folk-based repertories....

Article

Lucy M. Long

A fretted zither traditional to the southern Appalachian mountains of the eastern USA consisting of a narrow fingerboard attached to a larger soundbox underneath. Variant names include ‘delcumer’, ‘dulcymore’, ‘harmonium’, ‘hog fiddle’, ‘music box’ and ‘harmony box’. Long found only in scattered pockets of tradition, the dulcimer has since the 1950s gained popularity outside the mountains; by the end of the 20th century it was being widely used by both amateur and professional musicians in folk-based repertories....

Article

See Vivaldi, Antonio

Article

Arababu  

Margaret J. Kartomi and Mayco A. Santaella

Indonesian spike fiddle. It is also known as rababo in Bolaang Mongondow (North Sulawesi), as alababu in Gorontalo, as arababoe in Halmahera, and as erbabi in Buru and elsewhere. Its resonator is half a coconut shell, usually covered with a membrane of buffalo bladder as a soundtable. A slender bamboo neck passes through the shell and meets the proximal end of the instrument’s wooden foot. It has a single string of vegetable fibre or cotton. The bamboo bow has resined ‘hair’ of fibre from the sheath of sugar palm leaves....

Article

Arbab  

Margaret J. Kartomi

Spike fiddle of the Batak Karo and Batak Toba areas in North Sumatra. Its spike and neck are made of wood, and the body is made of a coconut shell hemisphere, 8 to 15 cm in diameter, its opening covered with goat skin. The top of the neck, above the long lateral tuning pegs, is sometimes decorated with a carved scroll. The two strings (sometimes only one), made of strands of pineapple leaf, are about 75 cm long and pass over a low bridge located high on the skin belly. The curved spike is angled at the end to rest flat on the ground, where it is supported by the seated player’s foot. The horsehair of the wooden bow is tightened by the player’s bowing hand....

Article

Ārbajo  

Mireille Helffer, Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

Long-necked lute of Nepal. It is carved from one piece of khirro wood, the neck widening gradually into the curved, bulging body. The neck is hollowed to extend the resonator and is covered by a fingerboard. The body has a stretched skin belly on which the bridge rests. The four strings extend from the tail to lateral tuning pegs in the pegbox and are plucked with a plectrum, commonly nowadays a plastic guitar plectrum. The ...

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An earth bow or Ground harp .

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Down-bow. See Bow, §II .

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Up-bow. See Bow, §II, 2(i) .

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A type of ‘open’ harp (i.e. without forepillar) in which the strings are at one end attached to the resonator (usually by being tied to a spine beneath a skin belly) and at the other to a curved neck that arches over the resonator. The term ...

Article

Lynda Sayce

A generic term for lutes with fretted courses tuned like the Renaissance lute, and with extended, unfretted bass courses (diapasons). The archlute differs from the Theorbo mainly in that the body is smaller and the first and second courses are at lute pitch rather than an octave lower (this was possible because the string length was shorter). The term ‘arciliuto’ was in use in Italy before ...