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Moris Shlyomovich Bonfel′d

City in north-west Russia, first mentioned in 1147. Right up to the 20th century music in Vologda and the adjoining territory continued in its old patterns of church music, folklore and music associated with town life or the lives of the landed gentry, of which the most thoroughly researched is folklore. The collection and study of folk material was begun in the 17th century by the priest Richard James, a member of the English embassy headed by Duddlie Diggs, and ethnomusicological studies were vigorously pursued in the 19th and 20th centuries. As to church music, by the end of the 19th century Vologda had 47 churches, two monasteries, a seminary, an ecclesiastical school and a diocesan women’s school, but there are no special studies of Russian Orthodoxy in the Vologda lands, and music on the country estates and in the town has received scant attention....


Horst Seeger

Town in Saxon-Anhalt, Germany. It had particular musical importance in the Baroque period, but church music activities can be traced back to the 13th century. Heinrich Schütz’s father Christoph was mayor and owned the inn Zum Schützen, where Heinrich spent his youth. In 1651 he bought a house close to his father’s former inn and lived there for many of his last years, when not serving the Dresden court. Weissenfels became the site of the court of the dukes of Sachsen-Weissenfels, a royal line created by Prince Johann Georg I of Saxony in ...


Adrienne Simpson

Capital city of New Zealand. It was chosen as the seat of government in 1865 on account of its central location. During the early years of settlement, which began in 1840, musical activity was dominated by military bands, which provided music for balls, public events and outdoor promenade concerts. Home music-making was a favourite pastime, and newspaper advertisements for music teachers and music shops appeared regularly from around ...



Elizabeth Forbes

Town and port in south-east Ireland. It attained international musical fame in October 1951, when a festival was founded by T.J. Walsh, a local doctor with a passion for opera. Walsh remained artistic director until 1966; after the first year when Balfe's Rose of Castille...



David L. Austin and Patrick Joseph O’Connor

City in Kansas (pop. 360,500; metropolitan area 596,450; 2010 US Census). Within a decade of its incorporation, in 1870, musical activities were reported in local newspapers. A number of singing-schools and brass bands were formed and several benefit concerts were given to help the needy. Before the turn of the 20th century, performances of Guiseppe Verdi’s ...


Katherine K. Preston

Town in Virginia (pop. 14,068; 2010 US Census). It served as Virginia’s capital from 1699 to 1780. During the 18th century, the town (granted Royal Charter in 1722) enjoyed musical and theatrical activities typical of a much larger city. Sacred music was performed regularly from the time of earliest settlement at Jamestown (...


Betty Matthews

City in England. A Saxon church, built before the Norman cathedral, had before 951 one of the most remarkable organs of its period. It was described in a dedicatory epistle to Bishop Alphege of Winchester of c990 by the monk Wulfstan (see Organ, §IV, 4...


City in Canada, capital of Manitoba. Its geographical isolation has been a disadvantage in that more expensive and complicated types of music-making, such as opera, have not become established. However, the Royal Winnipeg Ballet grew from its foundation in the 1930s to a position as one of the leading international travelling companies. The first 40 years of the city’s musical life (...


Hans Ehinger, Jürg Stenzl and Harry Joelson-Strohbach

Town in Switzerland. Its active musical life is promoted chiefly by the Musikkollegium Winterthur (founded in 1629 and maintained by private and public patronage), whose traditions have not prevented it from giving the town a reputation as a bastion of modern music, thanks particularly to the patronage of the merchant Werner Reinhart (...



Wilfried Brennecke and Harry Vogt

Town in Germany, on the southern edge of the Ruhr industrial conurbation. A village of Witten, the seat of an aristocratic family, is first mentioned in 1214; part of the principality of Mark, it came under Brandenburg rule in 1614 and was later part of Prussia. No evidence remains of musical activity before the 19th century. A male-voice choir was founded in ...


Town in New York State, USA. It was the site of a rock festival held in 1969. See Festival, §6 .


Watkins Shaw and John C. Phillips

City in England. In the Middle Ages Worcester was the site of a Benedictine cathedral-priory which by the 9th century was already noted for its classical tradition of Roman chant derived from the monastery of Corbie, northern France. A considerable repertory of 13th- and early 14th-century sacred music of Worcester Cathedral-Priory provenance has been recovered, shedding light on the early history of the motet (...



Fritz Reuter

City in Germany. Located in the Rhineland-Palatinate. Worms grew from the Celtic settlement of Borbetomagus, which came under Roman rule in the last century bce. The city museum contains items from the 1st to 4th centuries ce, including a trumpet mouthpiece, an actor’s mask, a rattle and a tambourine buried as grave goods with a dancing girl....


Margret Heuft-Hubscher and Stefan Drees

Town in Germany, formed by the union of Barmen, Elberfeld and the smaller towns of Ronsdorf, Vohwinkel and Cronenberg along the Wupper River in 1929. The cultivation of music there was at first seriously hindered by Calvinist influences and became established only in the second half of the 19th century....


Martin Just and Frohmut Dangel-Hofmann

Capital city of Lower Franconia, Germany. The history of music in Würzburg falls into two periods, the earlier dominated by the rule of the prince-bishops, the more recent by state and municipal institutions. The turning-point was the secularization of 1802. The institution of the prince-bishops, who also wielded secular authority as dukes of Franconia, meant that sacred and vocal music predominated. Only in the 18th century was there a short phase when secular and instrumental music in the Italian style flourished at the episcopal court. After secularization, two new institutions were established where music was cultivated, the Königliche Musikschule and the theatre, which still to a large extent determine the musical life of the city....


Nina Vol′per

City in western central Russia. Founded in 1723, it was renamed Sverdlovsk from 1924 to 1991. Musical life in Yekaterinburg in the 18th and 19th centuries was dominated by folksinging and singing in schools and churches, as well as by amateur concerts. The city's operatic history began in ...



David Griffiths and John Paynter

Cathedral city in England. The Minster was founded in the 7th century and there has been a building on its present site since 1079. From the mid-1200s the music was regulated by a precentor and performed by the vicars choral, who were assisted from about ...



Bojan Bujic and Stanislav Tuksar

City in Croatia. During the Middle Ages it developed into an important ecclesiastic centre under the Croatian kings (10th–11th centuries) and was later ruled in turn by the Hungaro-Croat kings, Venice, Austria and Italy. During World War II German, British and American bombardments caused extensive damage and destroyed many architectural and art treasures....



Nigel Springthorpe

Town in eastern Germany. Zerbst was an important provincial centre during the years 1603 to 1793. Music was cultivated in the court, in the Schlosskirche (officially opened in 1719) and in the three principal churches in the town: St Bartholomäikirche, the Nicolaikirche and Trinitatiskirche. There are also reports of musical activities in the town organized by the journeymen from the various guilds in the 16th century and there were at least three annual fairs when the Stadtpfeifer (town wind players) performed with the journeymen....