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Article

Tupim  

Ancient Jewish drums. See Biblical instruments, §3, (xi).

Article

Thomas J. Mathiesen

Lively and noisy ancient Greek choral dance characteristic of the worship of Dionysus and of the Dithyramb (Pollux, Onomasticon, iv, 104; Hesychius, see under ‘tyrbasia’).

Article

James W. McKinnon and Robert Anderson

Ancient hand drum (a Membranophone). Approximately 30 cm in diameter, it consisted of a rim of metal or wood covered on both sides by a skin membrane. It is usually shown held in the left hand being struck by the fingertips of the right. Normally it was associated with the orgiastic cults of Dionysus and Cybele where it appeared almost invariably with the ...

Article

Lawrence Gushee and David Hiley

(b Augsburg; dAugsburg, March 10, 1149 or 1151). German composer, historian and hagiographer. He was a student, then a Benedictine monk, and finally abbot (after 1124) of the monastery of St Ulrich and Afra, Augsburg. He is said to have reconstructed it along the lines of the monastery of Hirsau and to have devoted much energy to ornamenting the church. Two somewhat different but parallel accounts from old chronicles testify to his musical talents, as well as to his skill as a versifier....

Article

‘Ugav  

Ancient Jewish instrument, possibly a reed-pipe or form of organ. See Biblical instruments, §3, (xii).

Article

David Dawson and Walter Klauss

Unitarianism is a religious movement whose origins lie in the Reformation, when dissenting groups of anti-Trinitarian believers emerged in Switzerland, Poland and Transylvannia. The Unitarian Church has traditionally subscribed to no formal creed, rejecting the doctrines of the Trinity and the Divinity of Christ and stressing the unipersonality of God. In America the Church has formally adopted the Universalist belief that no one is condemned to eternal punishment, salvation being ultimately granted to all. The dominant characteristic of present-day Unitarianism is the emphasis on individual responisbility in spiritual matters. This recognition of individual belief has encouraged the toleration and acceptance of a variety of practices and forms or worship and the use of different musical styles. Unitarian believers are found in more than 20 countries throughout the world, including Transylvania, where there is still a strong presence, but the following discussion is limited to Great Britain and the USA....

Article

Urania  

The Muse of astronomy. See Muses.

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b ?Reate [now Rieti], 116 bce; d 27 bce). Roman scholar and poet . During four decades he took an active part in political life, but his passion was for scholarship. Educated at Rome and Athens, he made available to his countrymen much of the entire range of Hellenic and Hellenistic erudition. Varro is the first Roman example of the polymath, and he remained deeply Roman. His eclecticism continued to be subservient to an abiding concern for the virtues of earlier generations, even as his prodigious learning was lightened and made palatable for ordinary readers by a strong feeling for earthy realities. He has been called the ‘most learned of the Romans’....

Article

Ritva Maria Jacobsson and Andreas Haug

A form of medieval Office, of Carolingian origin and common until about 1500, in which some or all of the antiphons and responsories are in verse. The vast majority are for saints’ days, but some are for particular Sundays or other feasts, including Advent, Trinity and Corpus Christi. Both metrical and accentual versification systems were used, and the verse was frequently rhymed. At least ...

Article

Versus  

Richard L. Crocker

A general term used to designate, among many other things, a particular kind of Latin sacred song popular from the 11th century on. Its distinguishing features are rhyme and accentual scansion in the text; frequent but varied and imaginative use of strophe, couplet and refrain; and clear, songlike phrases in the melody....

Article

Vespers  

Ruth Steiner and Keith Falconer

A service of the Divine Office, traditionally performed at twilight, at the time when lamps are lit indoors. Among the services celebrated by the early secular churches was an elaborate form of ‘cathedral’ Vespers, many elements of which have survived in the evening Office of the Armenian and East Syrian churches, as well as, to a lesser extent, in the Byzantine church (...

Article

Vin  

Sassanian horizontal angular harp. See Iran, §I, 5.

Vī ṇ ā, §1: Early history

Balachander, S.

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Virgil  

Warren Anderson, Thomas J. Mathiesen and Robert Anderson

(b Andes [?now Pietole], nr Mantua, Oct 15, 70 bce; d Brundisium [now Brindisi], Sept 21, 19 bce). Latin poet. After schooling at Cremona and Milan, he went to Rome as a student. By devoting himself to poetry, he won the favour of Octavian’s powerful counsellor Maecenas and later that of the emperor himself....

Article

Denise Davidson Greaves

(fl 1st century bce). Roman architect . His reputation is based primarily on the treatise De architectura, comprising ten books and dedicated to Emperor Augustus. In the introductory section (i.1.8–9) he asserts that music is essential to the education of the architect, along with drawing, geometry, history, philosophy, medicine, law and astronomy. A musical education enables one to perform accurately such diverse tasks as tightening the cords on projectile military engines, designing acoustical enhancements for theatres, and building water organs and other instruments. These remarks anticipate three passages in ...

Article

Barbara H. Haggh

Devotional ritual with a restricted or private intention. In the Latin rite votive ritual is regarded as a class apart from the texts and chant prescribed for the calendar of church festivals because it can be performed at any time and, following the appropriate formalities, in any place. It includes not only antiphons and masses, but also Offices, processional chant, psalms without antiphons, litanies and prayers. Votive material often appears as a supplement towards the end of books for Mass and Office or in individual books, such as collections of masses or books of Hours, but it may be interleaved with similar but non-votive material, as in the case of votive Offices. Its history intersects with that of the private Mass....

Article

Nicholas Temperley, Philip Olleson, Stanley C. Pelkey and Peter Horton

English family. The relationship of the musical Wesleys to the great 18th-century religious leaders of the same name is most easily shown by a family tree. Despite the statements of many writers, there is no evidence to connect this family with that of Garret Wesley Mornington...

Article

Lawrence Gushee

(b Bavaria; d Hirsau, July 4, 1091). Benedictine writer on music and astronomy . Wilhelm was educated in the monastery of St Emmeram, Regensburg, where his works are commonly believed to have been written. He was made abbot of the monastery of Hirsau in the Black Forest in ...

Article

Wipo  

Richard L. Crocker

(b ?Solothurn, c995; d c1050). Priest, poet and chronicler . He studied at Solothurn, became chaplain to the Emperor Conrad II (d 1039) some time before 1020, and then teacher and confessor to Emperor Henry II (d 1056). In ...

Article

Elizabeth C. Teviotdale

(fl 992–6). English versifier, music theorist and most probably composer . He is not to be confused with the homilist Wulfstan of York, who was Bishop of London (996–1002), Bishop of Worcester (1002–16), and Archbishop of York (1003–23). Often referred to as ‘the cantor’ in his lifetime and describing himself as the ‘least servant of English hymn singers’, Wulfstan was the precentor at Winchester's Old Minster in the years before, and perhaps after, the turn of the millennium. John Leland (?...

Article

Şahan Arzruni

( fl early 8th century). Armenian hymnographer and poet . Following the abduction of her brother by Muslim Arabs, Xosroviduxt, who was of royal blood, was taken to the fortress of Ani-Kamakh (now Kemah), where she lived in isolation for 20 years. She is reported to have written the šarakan (canonical hymn), ‘Zarmanali ē inj’ (‘Wondrous it is to me’), which honours the memory of her brother, killed in 737 for reclaiming his Christian faith. Despite its secular subject, this florid šarakan has been sanctioned by the Armenian Church for use during service....