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(a) ‘The Mail Arriving at Temple Bar’: engraving, 1834; (b) coach horn (with case) by Köhler & Son, London, c1870 (Spencer Collection, Brighton Museum and Art Gallery)

The Post Office, London

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(a) An hautboist: portrait by an anonymous artist, ?c1750, with (b) detail of reed from the same picture (Stiftelsen Musikkulturens Främjande, Stockholm)

Stiftelsen Musikkulturens Främjande, Stockholm

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(a) Angel with citole: miniature from the Psalter of Robert de Lisle, English, c1310–before 1339 (GB-Lbl Ar.83, f.134v); (b) man playing ?citole: miniature from the Stuttgart Psalter, French, c820 (D-Sl Bibl. fol.23, f.125r)

Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Germany/ Bildarchiv Foto Marburg

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(a) Clay fipple flute, c500 ce (Museo de Tabasco, Villahermosa); (b) clay flute with goitre chamber, c500 ce (Museo Nacional de Antropología, Mexico City); (c) the same in cross-section; (d) clay trumpet in two sections, c500 CE (Museo de Tabasco, Villahermosa)

Photo Irmgard Groth Kimball/from Marti, Pre-Columbian Music. 2nd edition Mexico 1978: Ediciones Euroamericanas...

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(a) Coloration used throughout a section in triple time, the notes with stems (‘crotchets’) being equivalent in value to minim rests (see line 2, bar 3) (Frescobaldi, ‘Il primo libro di capricci’; Venice: Alessandro Vincenti, 1626) (b) Coloration used throughout a section in triple time, the notes with stems (‘crotchets’) being equivalent in value to semiminim rests (see system 2, bar 1) (G.B. Fontana, ‘Sonate a 1.2.3.’; Venice: Bartolomeo Magni, 1641)...

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(a) Cornet in B♭, with ‘Stölzel’ valves, by Laberte Humbert, Paris, c1850 (otherwise an unknown maker); (b) cornet in B♭, with Périnet valves, by Antoine Courtois, Paris, c1865 (marked ‘Koenig’s Model’); (c) cornet in B♭, with echo valve and rotary valves, by C. Schäfer, Hanover, 1903; (d) trumpet in B♭, with rotary valves, by Arno Windisch, Dresden, 1974; (e) trumpet in B♭, with Périnet valves, by the Vincent Bach Corporation, Elkhart, Indiana, 1976; (f) trumpet in C, with Périnet valves and an ascending whole-tone 4th valve, by Jérôme Thibouville-Lamy, Paris, 1921; (g) piccolo trumpet in B♭, with Périnet valves, by Henri Selmer, Paris, 1970; (a), (g) Trompetenmuseum, Bad Säckingen; (b)–(d), (f) E.H. Tarr Collection, Rheinfelden; (e) S. Schärr Collection, Cologne...

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(a) Creation of an acoustic shadow by an obstruction in the path of a sound wave; (b) absence of an acoustic shadow behind an obstruction when the sound wave is of low frequency (i.e. of a wavelength large relative to the size of the obstruction)...

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(a) Diagram of a modern German bassoon showing the joints and position of the tone holes in the bore; (b) diagram of the five-key bassoon after an engraving in J.-B. de La Borde’s ‘Essai sur la musique’ (1780); (c) diagram of a dulcian (Choristfagott) after those shown in fig.5 below...

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(a) Diagram of a sitār: A gourd, B shoulder, C soundtable, D leaves, E neck proper, F fingerboard, G string-guider, H nut, I peg area with main pegs, J main bridge, K string holder, L fine-tuning beads, M frets, N bindings, O punctuating strings, cikārī, P cikārī posts, Q pegs and holes for sympathetic strings (strings not shown), R small bridge, S second gourd; (b) side view of shell; (c) sitār plectrum (mizrāb)...

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(a) double reed of an oboe, and (b) a bassoon; (c) free reed of a concertina

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(a) Earliest known trombone, a tenor in B♭ by Erasmus Schnitzer, Nuremberg, 1551 (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg); (b) Contrabass trombone in B♭ by G.N. Oller, Stockholm, 1639 (Musikhistoriska Museet, Stockholm); (c) bass trombone in E♭ (with tuning slide in bell joint) by Wolf Wilhelm Hass, Nuremberg, first half of the 18th century (Musikinstrumenten-Museum, Berlin)...

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(a) Elliptical stylus in a stereo groove with a sharp high-frequency modulation on one wall and a less severe waveform on the other; (b) pinch effect when hemispherical reproducing stylus travels in the varying groove formed by a plough-shaped cutting stylus

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(a) external tremulant; (b) internal tremulant

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(a) French violinist using the typical 17th-century breast position and thumb-under-hair grip: lithograph after a painting (1665) by Gerrit Dou; (b) Jascha Heifetz playing in a high position

Hulton Getty Picture Collection, London

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(a) Geometrical construction used to determine the plane of a reflector in (c) and (d); (b) paths of direct sound, and several reflected sound waves in a 19th-century concert hall with traditional horizontal floor and ceiling and parallel side walls (the diagram illustrates the different types of reflection which aid listening in a concert hall; after Beranek, 1962); (c) plan of the seating (shaded) and stage, showing the complexity of the calculations necessary to determine the wall reflectors of a small auditorium; (d) shape of the floor and ceiling of same, showing the calculation for the ceiling reflectors (after Bagenal and Wood, 1931)...

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(a) Helical horn, c1572 (Historisches Museum, Dresden); (b) triple-coil horn in F by William Bull, London, 1699 (Horniman Museum, London); (c) horn by George Henry Rodenbostel, London, late 18th century (City Museum and Art Gallery, Gloucester), shown with master crook and two couplers (mouthpiece missing)...

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(a) Kalapácsos kereplő (hammer-clapper) and (b) szélkereplő (wind-clapper)

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(a) Lace-tensioned kettledrums: woodcut from Mersenne’s ‘Harmonie universelle’ (1636–7); (b) screw-tensioned kettledrums: woodcut from Praetorius’s ‘Syntagma musicum’ (2/1619)

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(a) Lateral and (b) hill-and-dale movement of the stylus used in early stereophonic recording; (c), (d) movement of the stylus in the 45°/45° system of two-channel stereophonic recording