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Christian Poché

(b al-A‘zamiyya, June 1921). Iraqi ethnomusicologist and sanṭūr player. The focus of his studies has been on the maqām. He became interested in this in the 1930s after hearing the singing of the masters Muḥammad al-Qundarjī (d 1945) and ‘Abbās aL-Shaykhalī (...

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Elliott Antokoletz

(b Kasan, Russia [now Uzbekistan], 7/March 19, 1891; d Heidelberg, March 15, 1976). German composer of Russian birth. His composition teachers included Heinrich Lang (Stuttgart, 1911–13), Alexandr Taneyev (Moscow, 1914–15), Glazunov (Petrograd [St Petersburg], 1918), Vitols (Petrograd, 1918...

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Rudolf A. Rasch

(b Amsterdam, Nov 16, 1664; d Batavia, Dutch East Indies, Oct 4, 1721). Netherlands poet and playwright . Born into a wealthy family, he studied law in Leiden and Utrecht. He was one of the most important and prolific Netherlands poets and playwrights of the decades around ...

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Jehoash Hirshberg

(b Berlin, Aug 9, 1915). Israeli composer of German birth. His studies at the Stern Conservatory were halted in 1936 as a result of the Nazi persecution, and in the same year he emigrated to Palestine. There he studied composition with Wolpe and the piano with Irma Wolpe-Schoenberg and Ilona Vince-Kraus. As a student he made his living as a café jazz pianist in Jersualem and established himself as an excellent improviser. From ...

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Dorothy C. Pratt

(b Constantinople, 1881; d Chamonix, July 27, 1954). Armenian cellist. He studied with Grützmacher and while a student played chamber music with Brahms and Joachim. At the age of 17 he appeared as the soloist in Strauss's Don Quixote with the composer conducting and scored a triumph; he was then invited to play concertos with Nikisch and Mahler. In ...

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Geoffrey Self

(b London, Feb 21, 1881; d Reigate, May 15, 1945). English composer and bandmaster. As a cornet-player with the Royal Irish Regiment, he served in India. Subsequently he studied at Kneller Hall (1904–8), qualifying as a bandmaster, and in 1908 was appointed to the 2nd Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. In ...

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Marina Lobanova

(b Baku, May 28, 1947). Azerbaijani composer and pianist. She studied at the Music School attached to the Azerbaijan State Conservatory (1954–65) and then at the conservatory itself (composition with Kara Karayev and the piano with Khalilov), graduating in 1970 as a pianist and ...

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Theodore Levin

(b Keles, Uzbekistan, 1922). Uzbek musician. He was a musical autodidact from an early age, teaching himself to play the dutār, the ṭanbūr and, later, the sato, or bowed ṭanbūr, and the violin. In 1942, after being wounded in World War II, he joined the music ensemble of the Muqimi Theatre of Musical Drama in Tashkent. In ...

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Faik Chelebi

(b Agdash, May 28, 1927). Azerbaijani kamanca player. He began his education at a music school in Agdash in 1934. He studied at a college of music in the same town from 1941 to 1945, working as a kamanca player at a local theatre at the same time. In ...

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Laudan Nooshin

(b Tehran, 1951). Iranian tār and setār player, teacher and composer. He studied at the National Music Conservatory in Tehran from the age of 13 and then at the University of Tehran from 1970 to 1974; his teachers included Habibollah Salehi, Ali Akbar Shahnazi, Nur Ali Borumand, Abdollah Davami, Mahmud Karimi, Yusef Forutan, Said Hormozi, Dariush Safvate and Hooshang Zarif. From ...

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Gregory Salmon

Capital of Kazakhstan, to 1921 known as Vernïy. A provincial outpost of the Russian empire, it occasionally received touring groups and produced some original works of lyric theatre, but regular operatic activity did not begin until 1933, when the musical troupe of the Kazakh National Dramatic Theatre became independent. Yevgeny Brusilovsky’s ...

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Faruk Yener

(b Istanbul, March 11, 1906; d Ankara, July 27, 1978). Turkish composer and conductor. He had his first music lessons from his mother. He showed a precocious talent for playing the qānūn and at 16 he composed a musical play in traditional Turkish monophonic style. In ...

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Nathan Mishori

(b Tel-Aviv, Oct 19, 1930; d New York, Oct 4, 1994). Israeli composer. She studied at the Tel-Aviv Music Teachers’ College (1948–50) and at the Israel Academy of Music (1950–52), where her principal teachers were Oedoen Partos (composition) and Ilona Vincze-Kraus (piano). Later, she was composer-in-residence at the Bar-Ilan University (...

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Geoffrey Norris and Nigel Yandell

(b Tobol′sk, W. Siberia, 4/Aug 15, 1787; d Moscow, 22 Feb/March 6, 1851). Russian composer. Alyab′yev’s father, the governor of Tobol′sk, was a pioneer of local culture; his brother, Vasily, was a poet and playwright. At 14 Alyab′yev entered government service and in ...

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Mongolian Jew's harp . See Huur, §2 and Mongol music

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Alastair Dick

The old South Indian Tamil name for a double-headed hourglass drum. Its name appears to derive from the Sanskrit āmanrikā (‘summoning’). The drum was held in the right hand and played with the left. It was covered with cowhide and has been equated with the ...

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(b Hartford, ct , March 1, 1927). American soprano of Armenian descent. She studied at San Francisco, where she sang in the opera chorus (1945–6). At the Metropolitan she made her début (1950) as the Heavenly Voice (Don Carlos...

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Ghulam-Sarwar Yousof

(b Kelantan, Malaysia, 1940). Malaysian shadow puppeteer. From an early age he became interested in wayang kulit Siam, which is associated principally with the state of Kelantan and is the most important of Malaysia's four types of shadow play. He received his early training as a ...

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Jeremy Montagu

Ancient Phoenician flute cited by the Roman lyric poet Horace (1st century bce). In Persian, a ṃbūba can mean a tube or pipe. In the Targum (early Aramaic translations of the Bible), abuba (the Aramaic equivalent) is used for Hebrew ugav and halil, the latter a reed instrument, and the Phoenician instrument might well also have been a reed instrument, since these appear to have been much more common in the ancient Near East than flutes....

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Rachel Chacko

Term for modern ensembles of percussion instruments inspired by Indonesian gamelan models. Growing American interest in Indonesian music in the mid-20th century, fostered in part by commercial recordings and burgeoning academic ethnomusicology programmes, prompted efforts to fashion gamelan-type instruments locally to enable performance of traditional Indonesian and new Western compositions. Dennis Murphy (...