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Kay Norton

This article generally addresses music-making from the end of the Civil War to the present in rural areas of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The article considers public and private musical activity in secular, sacred, and educational venues prior to the 1920s and, briefly, afterward....


J. Richard Haefer

Encompassing the states of Arizona and New Mexico and parts of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Oklahoma, and Texas, the Southwest has a long history of musicality from pre-European contact through Spanish settlement, territorial days, and early and modern statehood. Interaction and acculturation of these early musical influences can be seen in parts of the music culture of the Southwest at the beginning of the 21st century. It is one of the most culturally and musically diverse areas of the country....



Stella Kourmpana

A small island of the Aegean, which achieved great economic and cultural development after the Greek Revolution of 1821 (Greek War of Independence).

Based mainly on shipping and trade (hence the name of Hermoupolis—the city of Hermes) the newest city of Greece was built, from the beginning, by refugees from the War of Independence. In less than half a century, it became the biggest port on the east-Mediterranean Sea. Following the traditions of European bourgeois society, the citizens of Hermoupolis built schools, hospitals, orphanages, factories, printing houses, and theatres. Music was widely taught from the beginning, privately initially, and also at schools after ...


Jude Philp

Island group in the Torres Strait, north of Cape York peninsula, Queensland, Australia, and south of the island of New Guinea. There is no indigenous term for the region, named after Luis Baez de Torres, the first known European to navigate it in 1606. While the Melanesian peoples of the Torres Strait employ the name ‘Torres Strait Islanders’, it is more common that they affiliate themselves with a particular island, village and family. Similarly, although an Islander performance can be broadly described in the common creole as in an ‘Ailan stail’, each performance also references the quite specific traditions and histories of one of the 18 communities in the Strait. The population of these diverse communities is small and is only a fraction of the total 31,000 Islanders, most of whom live on the Australian mainland. Three distinct languages are spoken: Meriam Mir in the eastern islands, Kala Lagaw Ya (and dialects) in the western islands and Torres Straits Broken, the creole language which is spoken throughout the area....


Margot Lieth Philipp and Mark Clague

A group of Caribbean islands lying about 50 miles east of Puerto Rico. They consist of the former Danish West Indies (St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix) and about 50 smaller islets, mostly uninhabited; the islands were purchased by the United States in 1917...


For discussion of the musical traditions found in the Caribbean archipelago, see the following articles on islands in the Greater Antilles: Cuba, Republic of; Dominican Republic; Haiti; Jamaica and Puerto Rico ; for islands in the Lesser Antilles see Martinique and Guadeloupe; Netherlands Antilles and Aruba...