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Article

Andrew Wilson-Dickson

(b Auxerre, June 27, 1923; d Paris, June 27, 1994). French organist and composer. He first studied with his father, organist of Auxerre Cathedral, and later (1945–6) with Guy de Lioncourt (composition) and Edouard Souberbielle (organ, fugue, counterpoint) at the Ecole César Franck in Paris. In ...

Article

Calvin Bower

(b Rome, c480 ce; d Pavia, c524 ce). Roman writer and statesman. He was born into one of the foremost patrician families of Rome; following the death of his father in 487 ce he was taken into the home of Symmachus, another patrician. Boethius learnt Greek philosophy and the liberal arts from Symmachus and married his daughter. Both men were colleagues in later senatorial struggles....

Article

Buccina  

James W. McKinnon

A curved Roman brass instrument (an Aerophone). It is less easily definable than its contemporaries owing to the scarcity of iconographic evidence and the ambiguity of the literary references, some of which confuse it with the Cornu. The majority of evidence, nevertheless, points to a distinct instrument. Originally it was a curved animal’s horn but it came to be covered with brass and even to be fashioned entirely from brass. Its musical capability seems to have been limited to a few pitches of the overtone series; this would agree with the literary references, which consistently attributed to it a signalling function....

Article

Calamus  

A term used in antiquity for various wind instruments, including the Aulos. For the use of the plural calami to describe the syrinx or its separate pipes see Theocritus, and Virgil; Isis.

Article

Thomas J. Mathiesen

( fl 4th or early 5th century ce). Translator and commentator . His commentary on Plato's Timaeus (only to 53c) is dedicated to Hosius, long thought to be the bishop of Corduba (d 358). More recently, it has been proposed that the dedication is to a Milanese official of about 395 and that Calcidius was a Christian Neoplatonist active in Milan whose writings were known to St Ambrose. The earliest surviving manuscripts, ...

Article

Cantica  

Geoffrey Chew

In ancient Roman comedies, the sung lyric sections as opposed to the diverbi or sections containing spoken dialogue; and, in a narrower sense, the sections sung by soloists (rather than the chorus) with instrumental accompaniment. In the latter sense the cantica were analogous to monody in Greek drama. In the comedies of Plautus, the ...

Article

Wolfgang Freis

The practice of plainchant embellishment used at Toledo Cathedral in Spain between the 15th and 19th centuries. Traditionally attributed to St Eugenius (d 657), Archbishop of Toledo, cantus eugenianus was performed with the versicles and responsories of the Office, and the gradual and antiphons of the Mass on ferias, as well as during the Christmas Eve liturgies of the Songs of the Sibyl and the Shepherds. A prebend for a ...

Article

Lawrence Gushee and Bradley Jon Tucker

( fl Carthage, ?early 5th century). Latin writer . His only known work, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii (formerly often called Satyricon because of its affinity to Menippean satire) in nine books, is a fantasy in which seven bridesmaids, one for each of the artes...

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Calvin Bower

(b Scylacium [Scylletium; now Squillace, Calabria], c485 ce; d Vivarium [now Stalleti], nr Scylacium, c580 ce. Roman statesman and writer. A member of an ancient patrician family, Cassiodorus was a representative of the Roman senatorial class who worked with Ostrogothic rulers in their administration of Roman government during the ...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Verona, ?84 bce; d ?54 bce). Roman poet. He settled in the capital while still a youth, and there formed an adulterous liaison with the woman whom he called Lesbia in his poems. These include one group (1–60) of short pieces reflecting particular occasions, a second (61–4) made up of long poems, and a third (65–116) which ranges from the epigram to the epyllion, a miniature epic, but which retains elegiac metre throughout. Catullus's characteristic passion and simplicity could often manifest themselves as extreme obscenity....

Article

Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl 3rd century ce). Roman grammarian and philosopher. He is known today for his On the Day of Birth (De die natali), a treatise on birthday lore and other subjects composed for the 49th birthday of his patron, Qu. Caerellius, in ...

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Geoffrey Chew and James W. McKinnon

Composition by the synthesis of pre-existing musical units. The term is modern, borrowed from poetry by Ferretti in 1934, and has been applied mainly to Gregorian and other chant. Some later studies have sought to expose weaknesses in the concept it represents.

Since the 19th century scholars have recognized the role played in some music by traditional aptness rather than originality; the notion of centonization has gradually grown out of this recognition. Gevaert (...

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Sassanian cymbals. See Iran, §I, 5.

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Sassanian clappers. See Iran, §I, 5.

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Chang  

Sassanian vertical angular harp; see Iran. See also Pakistan, Islamic Republic of, §5, (iii).

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John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

In 

See Plainchant

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John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

In 

See Plainchant

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John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham and David Hiley

In 

See Plainchant

Article

Nicholas Temperley

In 

See Wesley family

Article

Nicholas Temperley

In 

See Wesley family