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Mary Riemer-Weller and J. Richard Haefer

End-blown flute of the Tohono O’odham (Papago) Indians of southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico. It consists of two internode sections of wa:pk (‘river cane’, Phragmites communis) and about 4 cm of each adjoining section for a total length of 48 to 55 cm and 2.5 to 4 cm diameter. The two end nodes are perforated, but the centre node is left intact and is bridged by a rectangular hole cut in the side of the instrument and covered with a piece of cloth or leather. Three fingerholes are cut in the lower portion of the flute. The index finger of the left hand is placed over the cloth or leather to help direct the air over the internal partition, thus creating a flue for the passage of air, and allowing for minor adjustments in the airstream. The fingerholes are controlled by the right hand....

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Paula Morgan and Sue Carole DeVale

(b Berlin, March 8, 1907; d Tisbury, Wilts., July 17, 1984). British ethnomusicologist of German birth . After reading law for four years at his father’s urging, he studied musicology at the University of Berlin with Blume and Schering and comparative musicology with Hornbostel and Sachs (...

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Native American group belonging to the Santee division of the Sioux.

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Native American group belonging to the Santee division of the Sioux.

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See Goehr family

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Ronit Seter

(b Tel-Aviv, Oct 23, 1953). Israeli composer. After studying composition with Schidlowsky and Sadai at the Rubin Academy at Tel-Aviv University (BM 1979), he studied the piano at Northwestern University (MM 1980). He started teaching at the Open University, Tel-Aviv, in ...

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Charlotte Erwin and Michael Meckna

(b Vienna, Feb 6, 1881; d New York, Aug 11, 1949). Austrian composer, naturalized American. After graduating from the Vienna Music Academy in 1902, he studied composition with Zemlinsky and musicology with Adler at the University of Vienna (PhD 1904). He served as a rehearsal conductor for Mahler at the Vienna Hofoper (...

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J. Bradford Robinson and David Drew

(b Dessau, March 2, 1900; d New York, April 3, 1950). German composer, American citizen from 1943. He was one of the outstanding composers in the generation that came to maturity after World War I, and a key figure in the development of modern forms of musical theatre. His successful and innovatory work for Broadway during the 1940s was a development in more popular terms of the exploratory stage works that had made him the foremost avant-garde theatre composer of the Weimar Republic....

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Vivian Perlis

(b Kiev, Oct 24, 1897; d New York, Jan 10, 1982). American composer, pianist and conductor of Ukrainian birth, father of Yehudi Wyner. In 1914 he emigrated to the USA, where he became an accompanist and coach to prominent singers in New York, while studying composition with Frederick Jacobi, Robert Russell Bennett and Joseph Schillinger. He also conducted several choruses, among them the Workmen’s Circle Chorus (...

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Richard Henninger and Elaine Keillor

(b Toronto, March 11, 1913; d Toronto, Aug 24, 2006). Canadian composer. He was one of the first Canadians to employ and champion 20th-century compositional techniques. His piano piece Spasmodia (1938) represents the first use of a 12-note series by a Canadian composer. Born to Polish-Jewish immigrants with little musical background, Weinzweig received instruction on the mandolin at the Workman’s Circle Peretz School before beginning piano lessons. At the age of 17 he joined the school orchestra at Harbord Collegiate Institute playing the mandolin, tenor saxophone, sousaphone, tuba, double bass and piano. He also worked as a freelance musician. He pursued his musical interest further at the local library where he engaged in score study, particularly of the works of Wagner....

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Oldřich Pukl

(b Prague, Feb 13, 1862; d Prague, April 4, 1944). Czech composer and folksong collector. He studied in Prague at the conservatory (1873–8) and the organ school (1878–81) and privately with Fibich. He was organist of St Štěpán and choirmaster at the main synagogue of Prague (...

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Bruce Saylor

(b Ivançice, nr Brno, Oct 13, 1912; d Long Island, NY, March 11, 1997). American composer of Czech birth. One of America’s most important composers of operas and large-scale song cycles, the literary merit of his works, their original vocal style, and their serious attention to musical and dramatic detail mark a significant contribution to these genres....

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Max Loppert and Jessica Duchen

(b Sofia, July 26, 1929). French pianist of Bulgarian birth . At the age of three he began musical studies under Pancho Vladiguerov. In 1945 he went as a refugee to Israel, where he gave his first performance with an orchestra. He entered the Juilliard School of Music in ...

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Andrew D. McCredie

(b Berlin, Feb 22, 1922; d May 3, 2012). Australian composer of German origin. He received his early musical training from his father Boaz Bischofs Werder, a composer and conductor at a Berlin synagogue, and the Schoenbergian Arno Nadel. Following the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany, the family moved in ...

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Israel J. Katz

(b Vienna, Aug 1, 1901; d New York, July 28, 1988). American musicologist of Austrian birth . He attended the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (graduated 1924) and the universities of Berlin, Graz, Göttingen, Prague and Vienna, simultaneously studying composition (with Busoni, Reitsch and Schreker), musicology (with Adler, Fischer, Lach, Ludwig, Sachs, Schünemann and Wolf) and Judaic studies. He took the doctorate in musicology (Strasbourg, ...

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Helen Metzelaar

(b Amsterdam, Feb 19, 1888; d Laren, May 27, 1949).Dutch composer. After gaining a piano teaching certificate in 1912 from the Koninklijke Nederlandse Toonkunstenaars Vereniging, she studied composition with Bernard Zweers and Sem Dresden. She also taught the piano and solfège at the Amsterdam Muzieklyceum. Deeply concerned about the social circumstances of the working classes, she gave piano lessons to poor children, conducted a children’s chorus in a working-class neighbourhood and financially supported a number of families. She also conducted the Jewish women’s chorus of the Religieus Socialistisch Verbond in Amsterdam. During World War I her song ...

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David Charlton

(b Berlin, Sept 1, 1768; d Potsdam, July 11, 1826). German composer. He came from a cultured Jewish family whose circle included Lessing, Moses Mendelssohn and K.W. Ramler. After studying music with J.A.P. Schultz he went to Hamburg to produce his cantata (on Ramler's text) for the coronation of Friedrich Wilhelm II in ...

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Apache Indian group of the Southwest.

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Whilkut  

Native American group. See Yurok.

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Native American group, a subdivision of the Western Apache; see Apache.