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Nickname of Arthur Blythe.

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Ryan D.W. Bruce

Community artists’ organization founded in St Louis in 1968. Headed by the free-jazz proponents Oliver Lake, Julius Hemphill, Hamiet Blueitt, and Lester Bowie, this multi-arts collective produced poetry, dance, theatre, and visual arts. Musicians frequently collaborated with others from the Chicago-based Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians...

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Tammy L. Kernodle

The Black Arts Movement is most commonly referred to as the artistic arm of the Black Power Movement. Although it has largely been referred to as a literary movement—due in large part to the impact of writers such as Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), Larry Neal, and Nikki Giovanni—the movement’s goals were also advanced by musicians, painters, photographers and filmmakers. Aesthetically and philosophically the movement and its leaders sought to articulate and represent, through various forms of artistic expression, the diverse cultural and historical phenomenon that have shaped the African American experience. Its beginnings can be traced to the assassination of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz) in ...

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Pauline Norton

A quick-tempo American social dance, particularly of the 1920s. It is thought to have originated in the early 1900s in the ‘juke’ (black) bawdy houses of the ‘Bottoms’, the black quarter of Nashville. The movements of the dance as described in Perry Bradford's song The Original Black Bottom Dance...

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Mike Hazeldine

Septet. Formed in Chicago in 1927 to record for Brunswick and Vocalion, it was led by Johnny Dodds (clarinet); his sidemen were Louis Armstrong (cornet), Roy Palmer (trombone), Barney Bigard (tenor saxophone), Earl Hines (piano), Bud Scott (banjo), and Baby Dodds (drums). Johnny Dodds and Armstrong had earlier recorded for OKeh as members of the Hot Five (...

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Black Eagle at the 2005 Grammy Awards, Los Angeles.

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Akitsugu Kawamoto

American hip-hop group. It was formed in 1995 in Los Angeles by will.i.am (William James Adams, Jr.; b Inglewood, CA, 15 March 1975; rapping, vocals, various instruments), apl.de.ap (Allan Pineda Lindo, Jr.; b Angeles City, Philippines, 28 November 1975; rapping, drums), and Taboo (Jaime Luis Gómez; ...

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Lukas Pearse

Hardcore punk band founded in Hermosa Beach, California, in 1976 by the guitarist and songwriter Greg Ginn (b 8 June 1954). Key members included the singers Keith Morris, Dez Cadena, and notably Henry Rollins (1981–6); the bass players Chuck Dukowski and Kira Roessler; and the drummers Robo and Bill Stevenson. One of the definitive hardcore bands of its era, Black Flag toured extensively and helped to establish the alternative rock circuit. Their strong DIY ethos inspired countless other bands, as did their forming the record label SST, which despite legal difficulties, released albums by important bands including Sonic Youth, Hüsker Dü, and Dinosaur Jr. The band’s name and its distinctive visual imagery were provided by Ginn’s brother, the artist Raymond Pettibon, helping to establish the trend of hardcore bands adopting easily copied symbols....

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Gary W. Kennedy

Record company and label established in the mid-1980s in San Francisco by Herb Wong as a division of Aspen Records, Inc. Its catalogue of approximately 37 albums included the first issue of recordings made by Dizzy Gillespie (with the duo of Willie Ruff and Dwike Mitchell, variously ...

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Mark Gardner

Record company and label. The company was established in Glenview, Illinois, in 1971 by Gene Russell, who produced sessions in both New York and Los Angeles. Black Jazz was distributed by Ovation, Inc., of Glenview.

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Barry Kernfeld and Howard Rye

Record company and label. The company was established by Alan Bates in London around 1968; from that time, apart from a period of inactivity in the early 1980s, it has issued material in two series. The International Series contains new recordings by such musicians as Stephane Grappelli, Barney Kessel, Dexter Gordon, Hampton Hawes, Earl Hines, Teddy Wilson, Philly Joe Jones, Sun Ra, Paul Gonsalves, Ray Nance, and Thelonious Monk. In addition it is used to reissue much very diverse material: swing and bop first put out on Sunset; recordings of broadcasts made by Art Tatum and Jay McShann; V-discs by Tatum; items recorded in Europe in the 1960s by Ben Webster, Hines, Bud Freeman, Bud Powell, Don Byas, and Coleman Hawkins; and lesser-known items by Duke Ellington. The British Series consists mainly of newly made recordings by Chris Barber, Freddy Randall, Humphrey Lyttelton, and Alex Welsh, among others. The company also had a subsidiary, Freedom, which was used for free jazz, though some exchange of material took place between the two labels; as a result, when Arista bought Freedom in ...

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20. Black note heads without stems, flags, or beams, allowing the pianist to determine durations (Morton Feldman, “Last Pieces” no.2, 1959; New York, 1963) n/a

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Howard Rye

Record label. It was owned by the Chicago Record Company and was founded around February 1927 by Edward Jenner Barrett, a former Paramount executive, Fred Gennett, manager of Gennett Records, and J. Mayo Williams, who had previously been responsible for artists and repertory for Paramount’s race series. The label was named after the opera singer Sissieretta Jones, who was known as “Black Patti.” The first 20 of its 55 issues were advertised in ...

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Maureen Mahon

American arts organization founded in New York in October 1985 and in Los Angeles in 1989. It was formed by African American musicians, artists, and music industry professionals based in New York in response to the race-based assumptions about music-making that dominated the 1980s. The BRC addresses the racial segregation of music in the recording industry and provides an outlet for African American rock musicians to develop and promote their craft. Its co-founders were the guitarist Vernon Reid, the writer Greg Tate, and the artist manager Konda Mason. A non-profit organization run by volunteers, it stages concerts, sponsors panel discussions, produces recordings, and hosts a radio show in order to draw attention to the breadth of musical sounds and styles engaged by African American musicians....

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Robert Walser

English heavy metal band. Formed in 1968, it underwent many personnel changes but its classic line-up was Ozzy Osbourne (John Osbourne; b Birmingham, 3 Dec 1948; vocals), Tony Iommi (b Birmingham, 19 Feb 1948; guitar), Bill Ward (b Birmingham, 5 May 1948; drums) and Geezer Butler (Terry Butler; ...

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Barry Kernfeld

Italian record company and label. The company was established in 1975 in Milan by Giacomo Pellicciotti, then taken over and greatly expanded from 1978 by Giovanni Bonandrini. Concentrating on free jazz, it has issued many significant recordings by such individuals and groups as David Murray, Don Pullen, Air, Steve Lacy, Old and New Dreams, Lester Bowie, the World Saxophone Quartet, Roscoe Mitchell, Anthony Braxton, Muhal Richard Abrams, George Lewis (ii), John Carter, Sam Rivers, and the Rova Saxophone Quartet. Bonandrini remains passionately devoted to championing avant-garde jazz, popular or not: because Polygram had eventually become unwilling to distribute the portion of Black Saint’s catalogue which was selling in only modest numbers, in ...

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David Suisman

Record label. It was launched in Harlem in 1921 by the Pace Phonograph Corp. (later renamed the Black Swan Phonograph Co.), whose principal Harry H. Pace (1884–1943) sought to make a phonograph record company a vehicle for social, political, and economic uplift for African Americans. The company aimed to issue high-quality records by African Americans in all styles of music—not just blues and popular genres, but also opera, concert music, and religious works. This catholicity, Pace believed, would undermine racial and cultural stereotypes about African Americans, on the one hand, and promote African Americans’ own cultural development, on the other. At the same time, the company sought to be an archetype of economic development, both a model and symbol of African American capital accumulation and economic self-determination. The venture grew out of Pace’s diverse background in music, business, and political activism: he was a former songwriting partner of W.C. Handy, with whom he established the Pace and Handy Music Publishing Co.; he had worked for important black-owned banking and insurance companies; and he had been a protégé of W.E.B. Du Bois, whom Pace recruited to sit on Black Swan’s board of directors. The name of the label was inspired by the 19th-century African American concert singer Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield, whose sobriquet was “the Black Swan.” (Although Black Swan is often cited as the first black-owned record company, this distinction apparently belongs to Broome Records, established in Boston in ...

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(b London, June 21, 1938). English lyricist. In the 1950s his various jobs included that of a writer for the New Musical Express, a performer in the rapidly declining variety theatres (billed under such titles as ‘Donald Black, the young gangster’ and ‘Don Black, a living joke’) and a song-plugger. He began writing song lyrics in the mid-1950s, gaining success in the 1960s when Matt Monroe recorded his ...

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Jean Mary Allan and Ruzena Wood

(b Glasgow, Jan 15, 1859; d Sydney, NSW, Sept 15, 1920). Scottish baritone. He relinquished a post as organist at Anderston United Presbyterian Church, Glasgow, to train as a singer with Alberto Randegger and John B. Welch in London, then in Milan with Domenico Scafati. His London début (Crystal Palace, ...

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David B. Pruett

(b Long Branch, NJ, Feb 4, 1962). American country recording artist. Despite the fact that Clint Black entered the country music mainstream in the late 1980s, he is frequently grouped with the “hat acts” of the early 1990s such as Garth Brooks, Tim McGraw, and Alan Jackson. However, it was his distinctive mix of Texan honky-tonk and pop rock, combined with his talents as a songwriter, entertainer, multi-instrumentalist, actor, and director, that paved the way for the artists who later overshadowed him throughout the 1990s and beyond....