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Natan Shahar

(b Warsaw, Aug 8, 1909; d Yakum Kibbutz, Israel, Dec 18, 1993). Israeli composer and teacher of Russian descent. He received his early musical education in Moscow. In 1924 he emigrated with his family to Palestine, where he continued his musical studies with Shlomo Rozovsky (...

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Paul Attinello

(b Fresno, CA, Jan 19, 1945). American composer and administrator of Armenian descent. He studied at Fresno State University (BA in English 1967), San Francisco State University (MA in interdisciplinary creative arts 1969) and Mills College (MFA in electronic music and recording media ...

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Yury Gabay

(b Gyandzha [later Kirovabad], Nov 22, 1922; d Feb 2, 1984). Azerbaijani composer. The son of a famous tar player and singer, he studied at the Kirovabad Music College (tar class 1938) and then at the Baku College in the composition classes of Burshteyn and Karnitskaya. In ...

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Owen Wright

(d 1352). Persian scholar. The section on the mathematical sciences (quadrivium) in his encyclopedia Nafā’is al-funūn (‘Treasures of the sciences’), written in about 1340, contains a chapter on music which is one of the few theoretical texts in Persian from the period between the works of Quṭb al-Dīn Shīrāzī (...

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Natalie M. Webber

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Sri Lanka, now rare. It is a small version of the daula, about 30 cm long and beaten with one hand and a stick. It was used to play ana-bera, a drum pattern played by a public crier to draw attention to a proclamation about to be made. As late as the 1980s the services of a crier were still occasionally needed in villages, when the ...

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Añafil  

Mauricio Molina

Term for the Arab and Persian nafīr, a straight trumpet. It was introduced to Iberia by the Moors during the Middle Ages. The añafil is commonly represented in Iberian art from the 10th century to the 13th with banners and in the context of battles, and thereafter throughout medieval European iconography....

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Alastair Dick and Jeremy Montagu

Variable tension chordophone of Bengal (east India and Bangladesh). Ānandalaharī (‘waves of joy’) appears to be a literary name; in the countryside the instrument is more often called by the onomatopoeic names gubgubī or khamak. The body is a wooden cylinder open at both ends and somewhat barrel-shaped or tapering inward towards the top. The lower opening is completely covered by a skin and the upper by a skin with the centre cut away; both skins are laced to plaited leather hoops and braced by cord V-lacings, each having a metal tuning-ring, giving an inverted Y-shape. (Older models had only a lower skin, glued on.) A gut string is looped through two holes and a protective button (or piece of bamboo etc.) in the centre of the lower skin, passing up through the body as a single or double string to a hole in the bottom of a small brass pot, where the string is attached with another toggle. The body is tucked into the left armpit and the string tensioned by the left hand gripping the small pot; the right hand plucks the string with a small plectrum of bone, plastic, or other material. The tension of the string, and hence its pitch, can be greatly and instantly varied by the left hand to produce a dramatic accompaniment for song or dance; it can play both rhythms and melodies, with swooping portamento leaps within about an octave. The ...

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Andelu  

Jeremy Montagu

Rattle used by ballad singers of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is a pair of hollow metal rings about 4 to 5 cm in diameter, open all around the outer circumference and containing metal pellets. The rings are worn on the thumbs or fingers. It is similar to the ...

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See Balanchivadze family

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See Balanchivadze family

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Ferdinand J. de Hen

Transverse flute of India. It was invented by the surgeon and inventor Chintamani V. Mehendale, M.D. (1928–2008) and first played publicly by him at the University of Mumbai on 25 Oct 1977. Instead of fingerholes producing a limited number of discrete pitches, it has a sliding, spring-loaded external sleeve of canvas covering a channel in the tube. Sliding the sleeve allows a glissando over the full range of pitches, as well as inflections of pitch, similar to those achieved by pulling the strings on the sitar, which are impossible to produce on ordinary flutes....

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Ankara  

Faruk Yener

Capital of the Republic of Turkey. The foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923 was followed by the concentration of cultural activities in the new capital, which had been an important commercial city since ancient times. In 1934 the first operas by Turkish composers were produced at the Ankara Halkevi Theatre (opened ...

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Laurence Libin

Jew’s harp of Cambodia. It is a thin, narrow, tapering slip of bamboo about 24 cm long, with an idioglot tongue tuned with a blob of beeswax. The bamboo can be decorated with a painted design. It was traditionally used as a voice disguiser in courting and sometimes played for recreation by herders. Nowadays it is available commercially and played by children. Reportedly the name also denotes an iron jew’s harp with heteroglot tongue, also tuned with wax....

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Anmabue  

Henry Johnson

Bamboo duct flute of Japan. It was played by masseurs and masseuses in the Edo period to attract customers (anma: masseur/masseuse; bue/fue: flute). Also known as anma and anma no fue, it exists in two types: a single flute with three fingerholes, and two flutes without fingerholes that are tied together and tuned slightly apart so as to produce beats when both flutes are blown simultaneously. Nowadays, the instrument is known as a ...

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(b Toḥayta, Tihama, South Arabia, c1892; d Ṣan‘ā, 1965). Yemeni singer and lutenist. He began singing while in Zabid, accompanying himself on a copper plate. He studied the qanbūs (lute) with Muḥammad Sha'bān and Muḥammad al-‘Attāb, both of whom he met in Ethiopia where they had taken refuge from the puritanism of Imām Yaḥyā. Al-‘Antarī’s life story is surrounded by legends, and it is also said that he met al-‘Attāb in Ṣan‘a and became his servant. Listening to al-‘Attāb, al-‘Antarī practised singing secretly until his master overheard him, recognized his talent and ordered him to sing to his guests. At the end of the 1930s al-‘Antarī recorded 25 songs for the Odeon company in Aden, and his subsequent career included numerous radio broadcasts and performances at weddings. He had an exceptional voice and was an accomplished lute player; he excelled in both the classical repertory of Ṣan‘ā (...

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Antioch  

Ancient city in Asia Minor. It was an important centre of early Christian chant. See Byzantine chant, §1; Christian Church, music of the early, §I, 4, (i); Plainchant, §1; Severus of Antioch ; and Syrian church music, §1 .

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Kevin E. Mooney

(b Port Arthur, TX, Oct 27, 1949; d Austin, TX, May 23, 2006). American nightclub owner, promoter, and producer. The son of Lebanese immigrants, he briefly attended the University of Texas at Austin (summer 1969), then opened an imported food and clothing store. Its backroom became a place for informal jam sessions, often with Antone playing bass. On ...

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See Erkomaishvili family

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Gary W. Kennedy

(b Tokyo, Sept 19, 1957). Japanese double bass player. His father was a film producer and his mother a kabuki dancer. He learned shamisen and taiko and received classical lessons on piano and guitar; later he took up double bass, and by the age of 17 he was performing on this instrument in jazz clubs around Tokyo. In ...

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Apang  

Geneviève Dournon

Variable tension chordophone of Rajasthan, north India. It has a cylindrical body, originally of wood or gourd but now commonly a tin can with ends removed. A skin is stretched over the lower end. A straight wooden neck about 60 cm long, affixed along the body, has a large movable peg through its upper part. A metal string extends from the peg to the centre of the skin. The musician plucks the string with one hand, using either fingers or a plectrum, and with the other hand turns the peg to vary the pitch. The ...