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Fritz Piersig and Dorothea Schröder

Town in Germany located on the river Weser. It is the country’s oldest port. It was the centre of the north-eastern bishopric established in 787 by Charlemagne against the Saxons; as the residence of the archbishops of Hamburg and Bremen it was noted at an early date for its musical connections. It became part of the Hanseatic League in ...



Carlo Perucchetti

City in Lombardy, Italy. From the 13th century the cathedral had a choir with a schola cantorum, whose first known cantor was Oldofredo da Leno (1287–?1315). During the 16th and 17th centuries there was a distinguished succession of maestri di cappella and organists. The former included Giovanni Contino (...


Gordon D. Spearritt

Capital city of Queensland, Australia. The population was only 829 in 1846, but had risen to over 100,000 by 1900 (mostly owing to European migration) and 1·5 million in the 1990s. In the 1850s there were some visiting musicians; the first suitable venue for music was Mason's Concert Hall (...



Betty Matthews, Ian Stephens, Jill Tucker and John Snelson

City and seaport. It is located on the west coast of England, near the junction of the River Avon and River Frome. It was at the height of its prosperity, which was reflected in its musical life, in the mid-18th century. A festival of St Cecilia on ...



Alena Němcová

Second largest city in the Czech Republic and the cultural centre of Moravia. From the 13th century onwards the original Slavonic inhabitants were augmented by German colonists and by a large number of Romance/Norman and Jewish immigrants. A systematic Germanization of Brno took place, especially after the Battle of the White Mountain (...



Eugeen Schreurs

City in Belgium. Thanks to its situation on the Zwin estuary to the North Sea, it became one of the most important trading centres of northern Europe in the 13th century; in size (c35,000 inhabitants) it was comparable with Cologne and London in the 14th century. Then and in the 15th century it was a favourite residence of the dukes of Burgundy. When the Zwin silted up in the 16th century, Bruges lost its dominant position to other Flemish towns....


Percy M. Young and Dorothea Schröder

City in Lower Saxony, Germany. The early development of music there was largely the responsibility of the ruling house of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. The city was notable for its liturgical music in the 14th and 15th centuries. Numerous manuscripts from this period are in the libraries at Wolfenbüttel (among them several Passion plays from Brunswick Cathedral; see Sievers), Hanover and Hildesheim. After the Reformation closer links were forged between civic, church and court music by Dukes Julius (...


Robert Wangermée and Henri Vanhulst

Capital city of Belgium. The city dates from the 10th century, when it consisted of a small group of artisans and merchants gathered round the military encampment of the Duke of Lorraine. In 1012 it became part of the territory of the Count of Leuven. From the 13th century it developed as a centre of textile manufacture; it was well known in the 15th and 16th centuries for its tapestries. It became important when the dukes of Brabant came to live there, and when Brabant was absorbed into the Burgundian territories Brussels retained a privileged position as their favoured residence. As a result it became the administrative and political capital of the principalities of the Low Countries, and frequently housed the governors of these territories under the King of Spain in the 16th and 17th centuries and the Emperor of Austria in the 18th. When Belgium became independent in ...


Christian H. Hoyer

A town near Nuremberg, Germany, known as an important centre of musical instrument manufacture. The imperial city of Nuremberg held a strong position in instrument making from the Middle Ages until the 18th century. Production revived after World War II when instrument makers from Czechoslovakia were resettled in the area. The community council of Bubenreuth—then a village of fewer than 500 inhabitants—decided in ...



John Dwyer and Herman Trotter

American city, in western New York state. In 1808 the frontier village of Buffalo recorded its first musician and its first music critic. A contemporary writer noted ‘how hearts leaped’ when the fiddler Russell Noble came over the hill ‘to set the tune for the country dance’, and added: ‘He had no more regard for time than eternity’. In ...



Magdalena Manolova

City on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria. It is the second largest city in the country. The first evidence of opera performances in the city dates from 1901. In 1954 a permanent opera company, Burgaska Samodeyna Opera (Burgas Amateur Opera), was formed, consisting predominantly of instrumentalists from the State SO and singers from the Naroden Khor (Folk Choir) and the Rodna Pesen (Homeland Song) choir. Its first production, ...


Jolanta Guzy-Pasiakowa

Capital city of the Bydgoszcz province of Poland. The earliest information on musical life in the city’s religious institutions (churches, monasteries and the Jesuit College) dates from the 16th century. By the 17th century the clerical schools had their own musical establishments, and the earliest information about the teaching of music, in the Carmelite convent school, dates from ...


Ernesto Paolone

City in Italy, the capital of Sardinia. It was founded by the Phoenicians around the 9th century bc. There is evidence of musical activity since the Nuragic Age (2000–1000 bc). A building of the late Punic period (300–200 bc) was probably used as a theatre; the Roman amphitheatre (...



David Fallows and Barbara H. Haggh

Town on the Escaut (Scheldt) river in north-east France. It changed hands many times between France and the Holy Roman Empire before it was finally declared French in 1678; its musical importance belongs largely to the 15th century, when it was under the control of the Dukes of Burgundy. Like most cities in that area, Cambrai became poorer as Europe’s economic axis moved away from Bruges. For political rather than economic reasons the bishopric became an archbishopric in ...


Robyn Holmes and Peter Campbell

Capital city of the Commonwealth of Australia. Designed by the American architect Walter Burley Griffin and founded in 1913, the city is an outstanding example of modern planning, and is home to some of the nation’s leading cultural institutions, including the National Library, ScreenSound Australia (formerly National Film and Sound Archive), National Gallery, Australian War Memorial, National Museum, and the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Together, these organizations collect, preserve and provide access to Australia’s most extensive collections of music-related materials. One of the most notable public monuments is the 53-bell carillon, a gift from the British government to mark Canberra's 50th birthday in ...


Caroline Mears and James May

Legislative capital of South Africa, capital of the Western Cape Province and the first European settlement in South Africa. Early South African music history is that of Cape Town; having become a major cultural centre, it maintains some of the most important institutions in the country....



Alejandro Enrique Planchart

Capital city of Venezuela. The earliest reference to music in the city archives is a mention of the organ of the Iglesia Mayor (1591). In 1640 a plainchant teacher was appointed to the cathedral which, by 1657, employed six chaplains, an organist and a bassoonist. Francisco Pérez Camacho, appointed ...



Malcolm Boyd

City in Wales. During the 19th and 20th centuries Cardiff grew from a comparatively small industrial port into the largest city and the administrative capital of Wales. Increased size and prosperity provided a spur to artistic activity, but Cardiff's present importance as a musical centre is largely the result of developments that took place since World War II....



Paul Hertelendy

Coastal town in California. Since the 1960s the Carmel Bach Festival under its music director Sandor Salgo has given a summer season including operas and oratorios, with the emphasis on Handel until the mid-1970s and thereafter Mozart. Its first opera production, at Sunset Theater, was Monteverdi’s ...


David Crawford

City in Italy. It was ruled by the Aleramo family before 1305 and then by the Paleologos until 1536, when the marquisate of Monferrat was annexed to the holdings of the Gonzaga family, who also ruled Mantua. The court's residence settled at Casale Monferrato in ...