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Article

Dimitri Conomos

The offertory chant in the Byzantine Divine Liturgy. Introduced into the liturgy in the 6th century by the Emperor Justin II, it is sung at the beginning of the Liturgy of the Faithful (after the Dismissal of the Catechumens) and accompanies the Great Entrance when the Holy Gifts are transferred in procession from the ...

Article

Denise Davidson Greaves

Part of a system of leitourgiai in ancient Greece whereby the rich financed expensive public services. A chorēgia was assigned to an individual chorēgos, who was responsible for setting up a chorus to compete in dithyramb, tragedy or comedy at a public religious festival. Competing ...

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(b Chalki, ?1770; d Chalki, 1840). Romaic (Greek) composer and scribe. He studied Byzantine chanting with Georgios of Crete and the patriarchal cantors Petros Byzantios and Jakobos Peloponnesios. As was customary, he also became fluent in the Arabo-Persian tradition of Ottoman secular music. He was evidently active by ...

Article

Dimitri Conomos

(fl c1440–63). Byzantine composer and theorist. The only surviving biographical evidence about Chrysphes is contained in music manuscripts. Information in IL-Jp 31 (c1440) reveals that he held the office of lampadarios (leader of the left choir) in the Byzantine palace. His autograph appears in an ...

Article

James W. McKinnon

(b Antioch, c347 ce; d Komana, Pontus, Sept 14, 407ce). Saint, churchman and preacher. He was born to a wealthy Christian family at Antioch where he was thoroughly schooled in rhetoric. After a period of severe asceticism, living as a hermit in the wilderness, he returned to Antioch to take up an ecclesiastical career. In 386 he was ordained a priest and assigned to preach in the cathedral; during the following years he preached most of the eloquent homilies that earned him the sobriquet Chrysostom, meaning ‘golden mouth’. In 398 ...

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Arpinum [now Arpino], Jan 3, 106 bce; d Caieta [now Gaeta], Dec 7, 43 bce). Roman statesman, orator and man of letters. The hundreds of references to music in his writings (see Wille, 1967) include no comprehensive statement of theory; individual passages show that his usual eclecticism prevailed here as well. The Epicurean condemnation of music and of late Stoic musical theory by a philosopher well known to him personally, ...

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Chants sung on certain feasts at Mass in the Mozarabic rite; see Mozarabic chant, §4, (vi).

Article

Jon Solomon

Greek music theorist. He was the author of a primer of ancient Greek music theory, the Introduction to Harmonics (Eisagōgē harmonikē). Cleonides’ name appears on only ten medieval manuscript versions of the Introduction. Many manuscripts attribute the work to Euclid or Pappus, but the Pythagorean approach of these authors is incompatible with the Aristoxenian music theory assumed by the writer of the treatise. A few manuscripts ascribe the work to a certain ‘Zosimus’ or avoid attribution entirely. Based on internal evidence, the writing of the treatise can be dated only to some time during the period between the 3rd century ...

Article

Clio  

The Muse of history, represented with the kithara. See Muses.

Article

Cloch  

Peter Crossley-Holland

Clapper-bell of ancient and medieval Wales. Several types were known, all with suspension loops. They include one quadrangular and one circular bell of Romano-British (La Tène) type, found in the Vale of Neath, and Celtic ‘saints’ bells’, including a long quadrangular bell now in the National Museum of Wales. Historical references to the cloch date from the 12th century, but the traditional performing practice has not survived....

Article

Michel Huglo and Manuel Pedro Ferreira

In the Western Christian Church, an order of monks in a congregation affiliated to the abbey of Cluny in Burgundy. An offshoot of the Benedictines, this order was distinguished in the Middle Ages for the care it lavished on the performance of the liturgy.

Cluny was founded by William III, Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Auvergne, as a house of 12 monks directly under the protection of the pope; William placed it under the authority of Berno, abbot of Gigny and Baume, on 2 September 909. From this time until the mid-12th century, daughter Cluniac foundations were established, first in Burgundy and Auvergne, then in northern France and England, and finally in northern Italy and the Holy Roman Empire (see maps 47 and 48 in J. Martin: ...

Article

Ruth Steiner and Keith Falconer

One of the services of the Divine Office. Traditionally performed at the end of the day, Compline seems to have originated as a form of prayer before going to bed; this was once the purpose of Vespers, with which it shares common theological themes, but Compline was never as variable or as imposing as its earlier counterpart. Basil the Great (...

Article

Joseph S.C. Lam

(given name, Qiu; style, Zhongni; 551–479 bce). Chinese philosopher. Founder of the official state ideology of imperial China and a sage venerated by Chinese people throughout the last 25 centuries, Confucius laid the foundations of Chinese music theories and practices. He taught that music is a genuine expression of human hearts and minds, and should be practised in conjunction with ritual as a means of governance and self-cultivation; ‘proper music’ should be promoted, while ‘licentious’ music should be banished. Confucius' musical ideas and practice, documented in texts such as the ...

Article

Christian Troelsgård

(b 905; d 959). Byzantine emperor and poet-composer. He was co-emperor from 908 until 945, and thereafter reigned solely until his death. According to Byzantine music manuscripts he was the composer of the 11 exaposteilaria anastasima of Sunday Orthros and three other stichēra...

Article

Credo  

Richard L. Crocker and David Hiley

Affirmation of Christian belief, sung as part of the Latin Mass between the Gospel and the Offertory. Three Latin Creeds have come down to us (‘Apostles'’, ‘Nicene’, ‘Athanasian’), but the history of the texts is complex; the one used at Mass is that usually called ‘Nicene’....

Article

A synonym for Sistrum. See also Cybele.

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Enrica Follieri

(b Damascus, c660; d Mytilene, c740). Byzantine hymnographer. He was first a monk at Jerusalem and later a deacon at Constantinople; in 711/12 he became Archbishop of Crete and from that time lived at Gortina.

His homilies (more than 50, of which half remain unpublished) and hymns were probably written when he was Archbishop of Crete. He was particularly famous as a writer of hymns, although the tradition that attributes to him the invention of the ...

Article

Crotala  

James W. McKinnon and Robert Anderson

A term for an instrument resembling slapsticks, although sometimes described by scholars as castanets (it is classified as an Idiophone). Crotala were probably the most common percussion instrument of classical antiquity and can be traced back at least as far as the Mesilim or Early Dynastic I period in Mesopotamia. Consisting of two pieces of wood, bone or bronze hinged with leather, they were held in one hand and struck together by the action of fingers and thumb. Normally a pair was held in each hand....

Article

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl Alexandria, 3rd century bce). Greek inventor. According to earlier scholarship, he was active during the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes I (246–221 bce). A review of the evidence by Perrot, however, supports the conclusion that he was active about 270 bce, the period of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He enjoyed wide fame in antiquity for his mechanical devices operated by the pressure of water or air. Often these were elaborate toys created to amuse the court: one such was a water-clock, with sounding trumpets among its ingenious fittings, made for Ptolemy's queen Arsinoë....

Article

Cybele  

Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen

Ancient Phrygian deity, often called the Great Mother by both Greeks and Romans. She was linked with many other female divinities, especially Rhea and Artemis. By the time her cult reached Greece (5th century bce) it had become fused with the liturgy of ...