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Article

End-blown trumpet of the Teso people of Uganda. It is a straight wooden tube with a bottle-shaped calabash bell, the whole measuring 140 cm long. The trumpets are played by men in sets of three or more as accompaniment for dancing.

Article

J. Richard Haefer

Conch horn of the Aztec or Nahua peoples of central Mexico, and other pre-Contact cultures. It was called puuaqua in Tarascan and paatáotocuècheni or paniçatàopáni in Zapotecan. The Aztecs called this the instrument of the ‘Wind God Quetzalcoatl; he who breathes life into a void’. It was usually played in pairs, and the shell was about 15 to 20 cm long....

Article

Gavin Webb

Bamboo duct flute of Ghana. Its name derives from the roots atente (the type of music played) and aben (Twi: ‘whistle’ or ‘horn’). The famous Ghanaian composer and teacher Ephraim Amu developed the modern atenteben in the mid-1940s, particularly by changing it from a transverse flute capable of playing only five notes to an end-blown vertical flute with a wooden block forming a duct just below a node. He added two fingerholes (making six fingerholes and one thumbhole) to facilitate playing a two-octave diatonic scale. The modern instrument, pitched in B♭ or C, is 40 or 35 cm long. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Nana Danso Abiam, director of the Pan African Orchestra, and Henaku-Pobi, former ...

Article

Ati  

David K. Rycroft

Stopped flute ensemble of the Nama Hottentot (Khoikhoi) people of southern Africa. Like the adi of the related Korana people these ensembles are now obsolete; but there are many 17th- and 18th-century descriptions, and the Tswana people still perform a similar flute dance. The flutes were made of bark from the roots of the giraffe acacia, or from reed. They had a movable tuning plug in the lower end, but no fingerholes. Each flute yielded just one note, and they were played in hocket fashion, by men, while dancing in a circle....

Article

Atuamba  

K.A. Gourlay and F.J. de Hen

Bullroarer of the Kuma of the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It consists of a slightly concave ellipsoidal piece of wood measuring 30 × 10 cm along the axes. The instrument is whirled by a cord attached to one end and the sound produced is said to resemble the growling of a leopard. The bullroarer has associations with spirit voices and secret ceremonies such as circumcision, and has restrictions against women and non-initiates seeing it, as is customary for other bullroarers of the Congo. The varied names collected by de Hen suggest an onomatopoeic derivation, for example, the Adoi, Amanga, Andebogo and Andowi ...

Article

Atuñsa  

John M. Schechter

Transverse flute of the Motilón Indians of the Sierra Perijá in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, on the Caribbean coast of Colombia, and of the Yupa of Venezuela. Made from cane, it is about 110 cm long and 5.5 cm in diameter. It has four fingerholes and an attached airduct at right angles to the cane, giving it the appearance of an axe. Played by men, it is associated with fertility rites. It has also been described as being made of a human tibia or femur, without a separate mouthpiece....

Article

Aulero  

Peter Cooke

End-blown flute of the Teso people of the Mbale district, Uganda. It is usually made from a lobelia stem and is sometimes blown obliquely. Frequently the narrow, open distal end is cut obliquely also.

See also Ndere .

Article

A slide ( see Zug ) of a trombone or slide trumpet.

Article

Laurence Libin

An early and unsuccessful card-operated mechanical organ apparatus. The autophon was patented in 1848 by the London organ builder Charles Dawson and exhibited at the Great Exhibition, Crystal Palace, London (1851), and at industrial exhibitions in Dublin and Devonport. It was intended to permit the playing of an unlimited number of tunes, each programmed on an inexpensive perforated millboard sheet (somewhat as in a Jacquard loom apparatus) fed through the instrument by the use of a crank. The chief object was reportedly to provide music for country churches where an organist was unavailable....

Article

Barbara Owen and Laurence Libin

Trade name for a small mechanical reed organ, operated by means of a crank-fed perforated strip. It was patented by Henry B. Horton in 1877 (no.196,529) and improved in 1882 by Henry B. Morris and Lucien A. Brott (no.252,844). It was manufactured in various models and great numbers by the Autophone Co. (later the Mechanical Orguinette Co.) of Ithaca, New York, which also made related instruments under the names of Musette, Celestina, and Musical Casket....

Article

Panpipe of the Aweti Kamayurá people of the upper Xingú river area of the Mato Grosso, Brazil. It has four or five reed pipes, up to 50 cm long. Players graduate from these to the larger uruá flutes. The Kamayurá also have a flute call ...

Article

Ax  

Laurence Libin

In the argot of American popular music, a term for any instrument. The word particularly denotes wind and string types common in bands, such as saxophones and electric guitars; it is less often applied to keyboards and drum sets. Of uncertain origin but widespread by the 1950s, this usage apparently emerged in the early 20th century, perhaps in connection with the colloquial terms ‘woodshedding’ (laborious practicing or performing) and ‘chops’ (a wind player’s jaws, mouth, or embouchure, and by extension, any instrumentalist’s technical ability), as in ‘He’s woodshedding with his ax to improve his chops’. ‘Cutting contests’ (performance competitions) between early New Orleans jazz players naturally involved their axes. Such rustic terminology implies effortful, demonstrative physical work, like chopping wood with an ax....

Article

Azangi  

F.J. de Hen

Whistle of the Bali of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The cylindrical wooden stopped tube is notched at the blowing end.

LaurentyA, 180 F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960), 189, 192

Article

Valdis Muktupāvels

Goat horn of Latvia. The horn averages 20 to 30 cm long and has three to five fingerholes in one side. The tip is cut off and a cup-shaped mouthpiece is cut in that end. Blown mostly by men, the instrument produces a strong, deep sound that carries a great distance, hence its use as a signalling instrument. It was also blown by a young man on still summer evenings as a sign that he intended to marry that autumn. Typical tunes are ...

Article

Edward H. Tarr

A misnomer still prevalent in German-speaking countries for any high Trumpet used in modern performances of Baroque music. Originally, the term was applied to a straight trumpet in A (a 5th higher than the Baroque trumpet in D and a semitone lower than the modern B♭ trumpet) with two valves; such an instrument was first employed by the Berlin trumpeter Julius Kosleck in ...

Article

An early type of bagpipe. See Bagpipe, §8 and Hornpipe.

Article

Bagara  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Side-blown bovine horn of the Ngbandi people of the northern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a rectangular embouchure and a fingerhole in the tip.

J.S. Laurenty: Systématique des aerophones de l’Afrique centrale (Tervuren, 1974), 321.

Article

Bagpipe  

William A. Cocks, Anthony C. Baines and Roderick D. Cannon

A wind instrument which in its commonest forms consists of a chanter and one or more drones, all supplied with air from the bag, which is compressed under the player’s arm to provide a constant pressure. The instrument is classed as a composite reedpipe.

Bagpipes are generally used in the performance of traditional folk musics, and their designs vary in different countries or ethnic regions. The main exceptions to this rule include the occasional adoption of bagpipes by fashionable society and by composers of opera, ballet, concertos and chamber music, most notably in 18th-century France (...

Article

Alastair Dick

Name for different flutes in Sind, Pakistan. One type is a thin, wooden transverse flute, about 1.5 cm in diameter and about 30 to 45 cm long, with six equidistant fingerholes. The other is an end-blown duct flute, this name being given to a flute of the paired duct flutes ...

Article

Alastair Dick

A bagpipe of central and southern India. It consists of a short blowpipe, a goatskin bag, and a bamboo single-reed chanter, and is used in the instrumental ensemble bajānā to accompany devotional music. Other south Indian names for the instrument are śruti upa ṅga and ...